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DOPING IN ITALY… THE INTERNATIONAL IMPACT AND…AND… Play the Game Copenaghen, 12th November 2002 Alessandro Donati.

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Presentation on theme: "DOPING IN ITALY… THE INTERNATIONAL IMPACT AND…AND… Play the Game Copenaghen, 12th November 2002 Alessandro Donati."— Presentation transcript:

1 DOPING IN ITALY… THE INTERNATIONAL IMPACT AND…AND… Play the Game Copenaghen, 12th November 2002 Alessandro Donati

2 The Minister of Health: “Blood transfusions aimed to improving sports performances were outlawed and defined Blood Doping” 1986: THE DISCOVERY OF DOPING DIARIES IN ATHLETIC AND IN WEIGHTLIFTING NATIONAL TEAMS : a long struggle…

3 While the events were taking place, while I continued my fight against doping in high level athletes, I became progressively aware of a new phenomenon: the ever increasing diffusion of doping intermediate level athletes and even among amateur and junior athletes. I very soon understood that this issue was just as serious from an ethical point of view, but much more dangerous as regards the health related risks involved. High level athletes do indeed play perilous games with doping substances, but they are careful to keep under control, as much as possible, the more dangerous side effects thanks to accurate medical and laboratory tests. If amateur athletes recur to doping, they may easily exaggerate the dosage or take these substance for too long; the health related risks are then even greater.

4 DOPING IN ITALY: THE INTERNATIONAL IMPACT Causes Proportions Possible solutions THE SILENT DRAMA OF THE DIFFUSION AMONG AMATEURS AND PRACTITIONERS

5 EVALUATION OF THE PROPORTIONS OF THE DOPING PHENOMENON EVALUATION OF THE PROPORTIONS OF THE DOPING PHENOMENON Results of anti-doping urine tests Results of surveys on awareness and possible assumption of doping substances THE SILENT DRAMA OF THE DOPING DIFFUSION AMONG AMATEURS AND PRACTITIONERS Illegal commerce and seizure of doping substances Sale of drugs having a doping potential

6 ILLEGAL COMMERCE AND SEIZURE OF DOPING SUBSTANCES Piacenza, October 1997 Four persons under arrest, 54 under criminal investigation, 21 search warrants is the result of a police enquiry on the circulation of anabolic hormones in the gymnasiums of northern Italy. Colonel Travaglione, of the Carabinieri in Rome declares: “The extension of the illegal traffic is increasing greatly: in doses of anabolic hormones were seized, in 1996 the figure rose to This racket often uses the distributive chain used for drugs”. Milano, January 1999 The Carabinieri find two bags lying on the street that contain 35 kg of testosterone. The quantity is sufficient to dope athletes for one day or for 10 days. Torino, January 1999 The Attorney’s Office of Torino opens an enquiry on expenses illegally ascribed to the Public Health Department of the Province of Torino where in the first eight months of million euro were spent for Epo alone. The Health Department denounces that at least half of the Epo and Gh that is produced and put on the market disappears on the black market of the sports milieu. Sydney, January 1999 From mid-June 1997 to mid-June 1998 the Australian frontier police intercepted 571 dispatches of doping substances via the Internet, mainly anabolic steroids. The phenomenon increases as the Olympic Games grow nearer and involves a number of countries who are preparing the supplies that their athletes will use during the Games. Nicosia, July phials of erythropoietin are stolen in Cyprus. The local authorities believe that the theft was commissioned and that the product will also be distributed in the black market of the sports milieu.

7 ILLEGAL COMMERCE AND SEIZURE OF DOPING SUBSTANCES Venezia, February 2000 Thirty kilos of doping substances, produced in Greece, are seized by the Financial Police in Venezia; they are mostly phials and pills of anabolic steroids container in boxes hidden in the false bottom of a truck transporting candied fruit to Holland and Germany. The policemen notified the investigators of the other European countries. Milano, May 2000 Three persons are arrested, two Italians and an Englishman, for they are accused of peddling drugs and doping substances (including erythropoietin); they are found to be important figures of the criminal organizations operating in Lombardia. Malaga, June 2000 Thomas Geore, coach of the élite swimmer Nina Jivanevskaja, is arrested together with other three persons and accused of drug peddling. Palermo, July 2000 After many months of investigation the Financial Police, discover a widespread racket, involving a number of Italian regions, of erythropoietin, growth hormone and anabolic steroids for veterinary use. Carrara, July 2000 Two police officers and a male nurse of the hospital of Carrara are arrested by the National Anti-mafia Directorate, and accused of “involvement in the sale of erythropoietin and other drugs to professional and amateur athletes without prescription”. Sydney, July 2000 About 1000 phials containing erythopoietin are stolen from the hospital of Alice Springs; the commercial value, on the black market, amounts to various million dollars; according to the police “the phials were probably sent to Sydney”. Roma, October 2000 A gigantic fraud against the National Health Service, amounting to various billion Italian lire is discovered; it involved false prescriptions for anabolic steroids, erythropoietin and growth hormone. Bologna, December 2000 The General Attorney’s Office concludes a widespread investigation, carried out over the whole national territory, on the illicit traffic of doping substances; 200 search warrants are executed; 41 persons are arrested and an enormous quantity of doping substances are seized. Various European and non- European countries are involved.

8 ILLEGAL COMMERCE AND SEIZURE OF DOPING SUBSTANCES Roma, February 2001 The UN’s International Narcotics Control Council observes that during the year 2000 there has been an excessive use of drugs under medical prescription. The Report mentions “a medicalization of social issues” and indicates that, especially in the USA, there has been a great increase in the prescription of psychoactive drugs for children under the age of six years. March 2001 Two hundred thousand customers of German gymnasiums and fitness centres make habitual use of anabolic steroids. This is the result of a survey carried out by the Department of Medicine of the University of Lubeck and presented to the sports commission of the Bundestag. Napoli, May warrants are issued in 10 Italian provinces for criminal association, receiving stolen goods, corruption, false material and fraud against the National Health Service for recycling stolen drugs. A police officer is among the persons arrested and is accused of buying anabolic steroids from the criminal organization and then selling them to athletes and gymnasiums. Napoli, July 2001 A colonel and two petty officers of the Carabinieri are arrested together with over 10 members of criminal organizations and are accused of cigarette smuggling and peddling of anabolic steroids. The Attorney’s Office mentions “a deviant intelligence service capable of interfering with the regular democratic life of the country” and parallel investigations involving filing of members of the country’s institutions.

9 ILLEGAL COMMERCE AND SEIZURE OF DOPING SUBSTANCES July 2001 The French magazine “Santé et Travail” publishes the results of a wide survey showing that 20% of the workers use amphetamines, hoping to counter the effects of daily stress, while the use of cocaine is increasing among executives and managers. Torino, August 2001 The Attorney’s Office in Torino opens an investigation on 72 companies producers of dietary supplements that contain substances having a doping effect. The FBI has identified about 10 Italian chemists among the buyers. Torino, November 2001 An epidemiological survey carried out by the Attorney’s Office in Torino on a sample of about cyclists active between 1975 and 1995 shows over 100 cases of death caused by lymphocitic sarcoma. Also the number of deaths caused by melanoma and liver cancer are above average. January 2002 Phoenix Police authorities in Arizona suspect there is a direct connection between a gigantic traffic of growth hormone phials of Saizen worth various million dollars – and the forthcoming Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City. Criminal organizations are involved and a police informer is killed while he was speaking over the telephone to a police officer. March 2002 The IOC publishes the results of tests carried out on 634 non-hormone dietary supplements; 94 (14,8%) are shown to be contaminated by anabolic steroids: 23 contain precursors of nandrolone and testosterone; 64 contain testosterone and 7 contain nandrolone. Udine, April 2002 The General Attorney’s office concludes an enquiry involving a large number of gymnasiums in northern Italy and discovers a racket of anabolic steroids and growth hormone produced in various European and non-European countries. Over a 100 persons are under investigation. There is a close connection with the criminal enquiry in Bologna.

10 Rovereto, May 2002 The Carabinieri carry out investigations in 5 Italian regions for peddling of anabolic steroids. Brescia, May 2002 The Attorney’s office in Brescia arrests 3 professional cyclists accused of peddling doping substances. Two deposits, used for storing significant amounts of anabolic steroids, growth hormone and erythropoietin, are discovered. The cyclists indicated as supplier a former Neapolitan police officer, Armando Marzano, already involved in another enquiry on illegal traffic of doping substances, theft in pharmaceutical deposits and in the chemist shops of various hospitals. Napoli, May persons are arrested for a widespread racket of doping substances sold to athletes and customers of gymnasiums. The Neapolitan camorra is involved. 30 persons are under investigation. The drugs came from burglaries and thefts in the following pharmaceutical deposits. Aprilia, Recanati, San Donato Milanese, Casalnuovo, Mugnano, Greggio, Sabaudia, Paternò, Monterotondo e Chiazzo. 5 chemist shops are closed by order of the magistrates and 8 chemists arrested. Aosta, June 2002 A trial for illicit traffic of anabolic steroids (involving the seizure of doses) sold to sports centres and gymnasiums is concluded. 10 persons had been arrested. June 2002 Viviane Reding European Commissioner for sports makes public the results of a survey, carried out in 4 European countries (Italy, Germany, Belgium and Portugal), on the use of anabolic steroids among the customers of gymnasiums. According to the European Union, gymnasiums are attended by about practitioners 4,6% of which use doping substances. * Up to October 31 st ILLEGAL COMMERCE AND SEIZURE OF DOPING SUBSTANCES IN ITALY

11 EVALUATION OF THE PROPORTIONS OF THE DOPING PHENOMENON EVALUATION OF THE PROPORTIONS OF THE DOPING PHENOMENON Results of anti-doping urine tests Results of surveys on awareness and possible assumption of doping substances THE SILENT DRAMA OF THE DOPING DIFFUSION AMONG AMATEURS AND PRACTITIONERS Illegal commerce and seizure of doping substances Sale of drugs having a doping potential

12 OFFICIAL SALE OF EPO IN ITALY SALE OF DRUGS HAVING A DOPING POTENTIAL OFFICIAL SALE OF GH IN ITALY THE SILENT DRAMA OF THE DOPING DIFFUSION AMONG AMATEURS AND PRACTITIONERS

13 EVALUATION OF THE PROPORTIONS OF THE DOPING PHENOMENON EVALUATION OF THE PROPORTIONS OF THE DOPING PHENOMENON Results of anti-doping urine tests Results of surveys on awareness and possible assumption of doping substances THE SILENT DRAMA OF THE DOPING DIFFUSION AMONG AMATEURS AND PRACTITIONERS Illegal commerce and seizure of doping substances Sale of drugs having a doping potential

14 Percentage of subjects declaring creatine supplementation and doping as a function of gender Senior High Schools (14/19-year-old) CreatineDoping substances Consumers (%) Males Females RESULTS OF SURVEYS ON AWARENESS AND POSSIBLE ASSUMPTION OF DOPING SUBSTANCES

15 Percentage of subjects declaring creatine/amino acids consumption as a function of gender and age RESULTS OF SURVEYS ON AWARENESS AND POSSIBLE ASSUMPTION OF DOPING SUBSTANCES

16 EVALUATION OF THE PROPORTIONS OF THE DOPING PHENOMENON EVALUATION OF THE PROPORTIONS OF THE DOPING PHENOMENON Results of anti-doping urine tests Results of surveys on awareness and possible assumption of doping substances THE SILENT DRAMA OF THE DOPING DIFFUSION AMONG AMATEURS AND PRACTITIONERS Illegal commerce and seizure of doping substances Sale of drugs having a doping potential

17 HIGH LEVEL ATHLETES MEDIUM LEVEL ATHLETES YOUTH ATHLETES AMATEUR AND PRACTITIONERS PRACTITIONERS RESULTS OF ANTI-DOPING URINE TESTS Only high level athletes (0,1-0,2% of the total) are tested Only high level athletes (0,1-0,2% of the total) are tested Very low percentage (1-2%) of positive cases Very low percentage (1-2%) of positive cases What do we know about the “others” 99,9%? 99,9%? THE SILENT DRAMA OF THE DOPING DIFFUSION AMONG AMATEURS AND PRACTITIONERS

18 What do we know about the “others” 99,9%? 99,9%? Bologna, December 2000 The General Attorney’s Office concludes a widespread investigation, carried out over the whole national territory, on the illicit traffic of doping substances; 200 search warrants are executed; 41 persons are arrested and an enormous quantity of doping substances are seized. Various European and non-European countries are involved.

19 THE SILENT DRAMA OF THE DOPING DIFFUSION AMONG AMATEURS AND PRACTITIONERS CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION OF BOLOGNA CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION OF BOLOGNA The Bologna investigation, carried out by Giovanni Spinosa, lead to wire-tapping of wholesale dealers of doping substances, which in turn lead to the discovery of a network of peddlers who sold these substances to gymnasiums. The result of 18 months of investigation was impressive; it traced the illegal circuit of doping substances Each one of these investigations underlined that behind the brazen lights of doping among high level athletes, there are innumerable daily tragedies that occur in the dark and are ignored by all, involving hundreds of thousands of amateur athletes and unknown body builders. I doubt that this happens only in Italy! Similar investigations, although not quite as extensive were carried out by the Prosecutors of many other Italian cities.

20 A client calls the dealer to order anabolic steroids and to ask his advice about type and dosage. LISTEN… THIS WEEK… I’LL START ON THE VIS ( he means Testovis )… HOW MUCH SHOULD I USE A WEEK? EH… TWO CLIENTDEALER TWO BOXES… FOUR HUNDRED MILLIGRAMS. ONLY? THEN TAKE THREE … I KNOW BUT HOW CAN YOU DO IT… THEY’RE SO BIG! ONLY? WHEN I TOOK VIRON ( he means Testoviron ) I USED TO TAKE FOUR A WEEK, YOU KNOW THAT EH? EH…TAKE SIX … OTHERWISE YOU’LL GO MAD, THEY ARE TWO CENTILITRES EACH, EH! SO THEY ARE MONDAYS, WEDNESDAYS AND THURSDAYS… AND ON WHICH DAYS ( of the week )? YES, ON THE OTHER THREE DAYS. TUESDAYS – THURSDAYS AND SATURDAYS … YOU MIGHT EVEN DO …ON SUNDAYS … ALL RIGHT… WHAT ABOUT W ( he means Winstrol ) … STILL THREE? CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION OF BOLOGNA: PHONE INTERCEPTIONS THE SILENT DRAMA OF THE DOPING DIFFUSION AMONG AMATEURS AND PRACTITIONERS

21 The client calls the dealer because he has some doubts about the substances he’s bought (anabolic steroids) HI, … LISTEN… I WANTED TO TELL YOU SOMETHING TELL ME CLIENTDEALER IT’S ABOUT THAT DIET YOU PREPARED FOR ME … YES? YES, OF COURSE, THAT’S WHY IT’S EVEN BETTER THAN THE OTHER ONE! WELL … BUT… IT’S … IT’S FOR … FOR HORSES? THE COMPOSITION IS THE SAME BUT THE STUFF IS BETTER… I KNOW, I KNOW, DON’T WORRY! HOW DO YOU MEAN “BETTER”… HELLO?… HELLO? ABSOLUTELY SURE… DON’T WORRY. THESE PHIALS ARE BETTER THAN THE OTHER ONES! ARE YOU SURE? … BYE BYE, MY GIRL FRIEND IS COMING! CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION OF BOLOGNA: PHONE INTERCEPTIONS

22 A man, boxing coach, who uses and peddles anabolic steroids and drugs, calls the dealer. LISTEN, I NEED A KILO OF PRO ( he means Procaine, a substance notoriously used to “cut” cocaine ) GIVE ME TWO DAYS, YOU KNOW WHOM I HAVE TO CONTACT GET ME ALSO 40 BOXES OF SAIZEN I’LL MAKE YOU A GOOD PRICE I’LL MAKE YOU A GOOD PRICE D E A L E R CLIENT - DEALER CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION OF BOLOGNA: PHONE INTERCEPTIONS THE SILENT DRAMA OF THE DOPING DIFFUSION AMONG AMATEURS AND PRACTITIONERS

23 I HAVEN’T FOUND ANY, I CAN’T FIND IT! LET ME KNOW … I’LL SEE WHAT I CAN DO A dealer who is also addicted to anabolic steroids and other hormones calls his supplier to order some products and tells him of his sexual problems: from the dialogue we desume he is impotent. DAMN, I WANTED TO DO SOMETHING TONIGHT... UHM… I NEED SOME HALOTESTIN AND MAKE SURE YOU FIND WHAT I NEED FOR MY DEAD GOOSE ( he’s referring to the fact that he’s impotent ). LAST NIGHT IT HAPPENED AGAIN, I WAS SO ASHAMED, I DID THE BEST I COULD. D E A L E R CLIENT - DEALER THE SILENT DRAMA OF THE DOPING DIFFUSION AMONG AMATEURS AND PRACTITIONERS CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION OF BOLOGNA: PHONE INTERCEPTIONS

24 A dealer calls his supplier and orders hormones for an athlete who is preparing a very important competition I URGENTLY NEED 40 GH PHIALS WHICH DO YOU WANT? I NEED GOOD STUFF FOR ONE WHO IS PREPARING FOR THE COMPETITION… THEN HUMATOTROPE IS BETTER HE NEEDS TO GET STRONGER BUT WITHOUT BECOMING LARGER I UNDERSTAND, IS IT THE SAME ATHLETE WHO TOOK EPO? WHOLESALE DEALER D E A L E R NO…I MEAN ALSO BUT NOW HE NEEDS GH CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION OF BOLOGNA: PHONE INTERCEPTIONS THE SILENT DRAMA OF THE DOPING DIFFUSION AMONG AMATEURS AND PRACTITIONERS

25 This telephone conversation between the dealer and the wholesale dealer shows that these people have an extremely superficial knowledge as to the real content and effect of the substances they are dealing with. DEALER WHOLESALE DEALER THEN SEND ME…THE POLISH ONE… WHAT’S THE DOSAGE 5 mg? YES YES… YES… OTHERWISE I HAVE THE EGYPTIAN ONE… WHAT ABOUT SUSTANON YOU HAVE THAT? EGYPTIAN, EH? WHAT’S IT LIKE? GOOD… WITH THE LABEL… IT HAS THE RIGHT LABEL! IT HAS SUSTANON WRITTEN ON IT? YES, … IT’S REALLY ORIGINAL! I UNDERSTAND… IT’S GOOD THEN…? SURE SURE IT’S GOOD… ABSOLUTELY SURE IT’S JUST ARRIVED O.K. … SEND ME … FORTY… AND A HUNDRED OF… EFRIDENE UM I DIDN’T CATCH THAT EFRIDENE … WHAT’S THE NAME? EPHEDRINE ! AH EPHEDRINE SORRY… EPHEDRINE UH … WHAT DOSAGE? … 100? IT’S TOO STRONG DO YOU THINK? IT’S TOO STRONG DO YOU THINK? IT’S MEANT FOR TRAINING? YES BUT… HERE… EVEN THE BOUNCERS AT THE DISCOS TAKE IT THEN 200 WOULD BE BETTER… THEY’LL FEEL IT MORE YOU PLACE IT UNDER THE TONGUE, RIGHT? NO NO… YOU JUST TAKE THE CAPSULE… AND SWALLOW IT… IN TEN MINUTES YOU… GET LIKE A PUNCH… CAREFUL THEY DON’T KILL ANYBODY! CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION OF BOLOGNA: PHONE INTERCEPTIONS

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30 NUMBER OF GYMNASIUMS INVOLVED IN THE INVESTIGATION THE COMMERCIAL VALUE AMOUNT TO 5 MILLION OF EURO THE COMMERCIAL VALUE AMOUNT TO 5 MILLION OF EURO THE SILENT DRAMA OF THE DOPING DIFFUSION AMONG AMATEURS AND PRACTITIONERS CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION OF BOLOGNA CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION OF BOLOGNA

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32 Amphetamine Anadrol Anapolon Anasteron Andriol Boldenone Boldone C25? Caffeine Caverjet Esiclene Cipionato Cipionato Gold line Clenbuterolo Clobenzorex + Ephedrine Clomid Confidol Deca-durabolin 200 Deca-durabolin 2000 Deca-durabolin Organon Deca-durabolin Multidose Depotest Dhea Dianabol Drolban Dynabolon Ephedrine Ephedrine + Caffeine Ephedrine + Clobenzorex + Caffeine Epargriseovit Equipoise Eritrogen Erythropoietin Eutirox Finajet Ganabol Saizen Genotropin Humatrope Globuren Gonasi HP Halotestin IGF Insulina Kryptocur Lasix Masteron Methandrostenolone Moduretic Nandrolone Nandrolone Cipionato Nandrolone Decanoate Nandrolone Decanoate - Norma Nandrolone Decanoate 2000 Nandrolone Decanoate - Organon Naposim Neoton Nolvadex Nonstasus Nortestosterone Omnadren Oxandrolone Oximetandrostenolone Oximetolone Parabolan Percutacrine Plegine Primobolan Primobolan Acetate Primobolan Depot Primobolan S Procaina Profasi HP 500 Profasi HP 1000 Profasi HP 2500 Profasi HP 5000 Progynon Proviron Restandol RWR Drive Synachten Spectriol Spiropent Sustanon Synthol T3 T4 Testex Testo Testo-Enant Teston Testosterone Testoviron Testoviron Depot Testovis Thiomucase Triacana Viagra Winstrol Winstrol Depot Winstrol Multidose DOPING SUBSTANCES SEIZED

33 THE SILENT DRAMA OF THE DOPING DIFFUSION AMONG AMATEURS AND PRACTITIONERS CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION OF BOLOGNA CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION OF BOLOGNA PEOPLE INVOLVED IN THE INVESTIGATION DEALERS: 287 OTHER COACHES (VARIOUS SPORTS) PROSTITUTES BOUNCERS AT THE DISCOS PEOPLE WITH CRIMINAL RECORDS PRODUCERS OF FOOD SUPPLEMENTS CHEMISTS MALE NURSES IN THE HOSPITALS POLICEMEN ATHLETES (VARIOUS SPORTS) UNIVERSITY STUDENTS MANAGERS AND COACHES OF GYMNASIUMS FASHION DESIGNER ARE ALSO INVOLVED TOWN COUNCILLOR BANK MANAGER INDUSTRIAL MANAGERS ELECTRONIC ENGINEER DENTAL TECHNICIAN

34 THE SILENT DRAMA OF THE DOPING DIFFUSION AMONG AMATEURS AND PRACTITIONERS CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION OF BOLOGNA CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION OF BOLOGNA BODY BUILDERS DEAD DEAD L.G. 27 YEARS A.D. 36 YEARS R.S. 28 YEARS B.A. 25 YEARS L.U. 32 YEARS S.V. 30 YEARS

35 PEOPLE INVOLVED IN THE INVESTIGATION DEALERS: 287 DEALERS: 287 CLIENTS: TEN OF THOUSANDS CLIENTS: TEN OF THOUSANDS AGE:MEN 29,5 ± 8,3 WOMEN 32,1 ± 9,1 AGE:MEN 29,5 ± 8,3 WOMEN 32,1 ± 9,1AGE: 32,9 ± 7,2 AGE: THE SILENT DRAMA OF THE DOPING DIFFUSION AMONG AMATEURS AND PRACTITIONERS CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION OF BOLOGNA

36 UNAUTHORISED SUPPLIERS Steroids – Testosterone GH – Epo (black market) Stimulants GH – Epo (burglaries in hospitals) Antiestrogen – Viagra – Hepato protective … WHOLESALE DEALER Steroids 9400 Testosterone2370 Gonadotropin 500 Erythropoietin 600 Growth hormone 200 Stimulants2000 Example of a weekly purchase (number of doses) PEDDLERS “B” PEDDLERS “A” Gymnasium “y” Gymnasium “x” Club “A” Club “B” Individual client GYMNASIUM 1 PEDDLERS “C” PEDDLERS “D” PEDDLERS “E” PEDDLERS “F” GYMNASIUM 2 GYMNASIUM 3 GYMNASIUM 4 GYMNASIUM 5 GYMNASIUM 6 A SCHEME OF THE ILLEGAL COMMERCE +++++=+++++= DOSES CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION OF BOLOGNA

37 ARGENTINAAUSTRALIAEGYPTFRANCEHOLLANDGERMANYGREECEITALYPORTUGAL REP. OF CEC. RUMANIARUSSIASPAINTURKEYUSAARGENTINAAUSTRALIAEGYPTFRANCEHOLLANDGERMANYGREECEITALYPORTUGAL RUMANIARUSSIASPAINTURKEYUSA EUROPEAN AND NON-EUROPEAN COUNTRIES INVOLVED THE SILENT DRAMA OF THE DOPING DIFFUSION AMONG AMATEURS AND PRACTITIONERS CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION OF BOLOGNA

38 Belgium, 23 July 2002 Belgian Police have seized 550 Kilograms of illegal anabolic steroids. The haul was discovered in three searches near the border with the Netherlands. The drugs, were destined to be sold in six different countries (two of them are mediterranean countries). GREAT BRITAIN ? ? ? ? ? ? 2 Mediterranean countries:Italy?France?Spain?Greece? THE BIGGEST SINGLE SEIZURE OF THE DRUG IN WESTERN EUROPE WORTH 137,5m Euro

39 CAUSES OF THE DIFFUSION OF DOPING WITHINWITHIN OUTSIDEOUTSIDE WORLDWORLDTHETHE OF SPORTS THE SILENT DRAMA OF THE DOPING DIFFUSION AMONG AMATEURS AND PRACTITIONERS

40 HIGH LEVEL AMATEURS CAUSES OF THE DIFFUSION OF DOPING WITHIN THE WORLD OF SPORTS CAUSES OF THE DIFFUSION OF DOPING WITHIN THE WORLD OF SPORTS CRISIS OF SPORTS ETHICS TENDENCY OF PRACTITIONERS TO EMULATE ELITE ATHLETES DISTORTION OF YOUTH SPORTS

41 THE SILENT DRAMA OF THE DOPING DIFFUSION AMONG AMATEURS AND PRACTITIONERS HIGH LEVEL AMATEURS CAUSES OF THE DIFFUSION OF DOPING OUTSIDE THE WORLD OF SPORTS CAUSES OF THE DIFFUSION OF DOPING OUTSIDE THE WORLD OF SPORTS POLITICAL INTERESTS OF THE COUNTRIES MEDICALIZATION OF SOCIETY COMMERCIAL INTERESTS OF PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANIES OTHER ECONOMICAL INTERESTS

42 POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS…

43 Which other solutions are better suited to the control of doping among children, youths and adults who practice a sports activity and among those who exercise in gymnasiums? SOLUTIONS WITHIN THE WORLD OF SPORTS SOLUTIONSOUTSIDE SOLUTIONS OUTSIDE THE WORLD OF SPORTS SOLUTIONSOUTSIDE SOLUTIONS OUTSIDE THE WORLD OF SPORTS Establish new models for the physical activity and sports of children and youths. Train personnel specialized in the physical activity of the younger age groups. Define the responsibilities of sports executives. Establish a new role for the media. Launch information and training campaigns organized by schools, sports institutions and local authorities (City Council, Provincial Government, Regional Government). The national anti-doping law. The World Anti-doping Agency (WADA). Define the responsibilities of the national and international governing bodies. Launch information and training campaigns organized by schools, sports institutions and local authorities (City Council, Provincial Government, Regional Government).

44 Handbook for school teachers (contains analysis of the doping phenomenon, medical, biological and psycho-pedagogical aspects, innovative models for sports and exercise in the younger age groups) Video on medical, biological and pharmaceutical aspects Video on various models for sports and exercise in the younger age groups Educational handbook on food consumption Cd-Rom (contains all the above teaching material) Questionnaire for the students Questionnaire for the teachers THE NATIONAL PROJECT OF THE ITALIAN MINISTRY OF EDUCATION Launched in 2001 THE NATIONAL PROJECT OF THE ITALIAN MINISTRY OF EDUCATION Launched in 2001

45 INTEGRATED MEASURES ON THE TERRITORY AIMED AT PREVENTING THE USE OF ILLEGAL AND DOPING SUBSTANCES

46 TARGETPOPULATIONTARGETPOPULATION End target (about ): students aged between 11 and 18 years End target (about ): students aged between 11 and 18 years Intermediate target (about parents): Intermediate target (about parents): The family; Teachers in primary, secondary and high schools; Coaches and sports executives, trainers and gymnasium managers; Faculty members of Movement Science Departments in the universities; General practitioners, paediatricians sports physicians, executives of the national health system, chemists; The media.

47 DOPING IN ITALY: THE INTERNATIONAL IMPACT Causes Proportions Possible solutions THE SILENT DRAMA OF THE DIFFUSION AMONG AMATEURS AND PRACTITIONERS


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