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Electric- Lytes Dr. Jeffrey P Schaefer General Internal Medicine.

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Presentation on theme: "Electric- Lytes Dr. Jeffrey P Schaefer General Internal Medicine."— Presentation transcript:

1 Electric- Lytes Dr. Jeffrey P Schaefer General Internal Medicine

2 Objectives Case based approach to abnormal –Sodium –Potassium –Calcium –Magnesium –Phosphate

3 Sodium

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5 Warm Up Case 81 yr old female presents to ER –recent viral illness –vomiting and diarrhea –Na  125 mmol/l

6 What are the clinical features of hyponatremia?

7 Hyponatremia Neuromuscular Irritability –mild anorexia –headache –muscle cramps –irritability –delirium –coma –seizure Rate of Reduction affects clinical severity

8 What are the causes of hyponatremia?

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10 Common Causes Edema –heart failure, nephrosis, cirrhosis Water excess –SIADH, polydipsia, iatrogenesis Volume Depletion –diuretics (esp thiazide), vomiting, diarrhea Salt loss –adrenal insufficiency, hypoT 4, –cerebral salt wasting Shift (pseudohyponatremia) –hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia

11 Case 81 yr old female presents to ER –malaise –recent viral illness –vomiting and diarrhea Na = 125 mmol/l

12 How should this case be managed?

13 Orders Solution? Volume? Rate(s)? Reassess?

14 Orders Solution? Volume? Rate(s)? Reassess? Normal Saline 1 – 4 l according to clinical assessment 250 – 500 / hr x 1 l, then 100 – 150 ml/hr clinical reassess in 4 – 6 hours recheck lab in 24 hours

15 Sodium, Salt What’s in Normal Saline? –NaCl 154 mmol/l –Na 154 mmol + Cl 154 / liter –How does this relate to grams?

16 Sodium, Salt What’s in Normal Saline? –NaCl 0.9% w/v –0.9 grams solute per 100 grams solvent –0.9 grams salt per 100 grams water –9 grams salt per 1,000 grams water –9 grams salt per 1,000 ml water –Normal Saline is NaCl 9 g / l Implication for heart failure –M w (NaCl) = = g/mol –Na accounts for (23/35) ~ 40% weight of salt –Low Salt Diet = 2 g of sodium = 1 tsp –Low Salt Diet = 2 g / 0.4 = 5 g NaCl –Low Salt Diet = 555 ml of normal saline

17 What else is on the menu?

18 Sodium, Salt, Sugar Na + mmol/l Dextrose in Water 0 ½ Normal Saline 77 Ringer’s Lactate*130 Normal Saline154 Hypertonic Saline513 * Ringer’s Lactate: –Na+ 130 mmol, K+4 mmol, Ca mmol, Cl− 109 mmol, lactate 28 mmol –electrolyte content is isotonic (273 mOsmol/liter) in relation to the extracellular fluid (approx. 280 mOsmol/liter).

19 Case 82 year old female in ER –HTN on thiazide –presents with seizure and coma –estimated weight 60 kg –Na = 105 mMol

20 How should this case be managed?

21 Sodium Deficit Calculated sodium deficit *0.6 males x (weight in kg) x (desired sodium - actual sodium) *0.5 for females desired range is 105 mmol/l + 5 mmol/l = 110 mmol/l hypertonic saline has 513 mMol / l of Na

22 Sodium Deficit Calculated sodium deficit *0.6 males x (weight in kg) x (desired sodium - actual sodium) *0.5 for females desired range is 105 mmol/l + 5 mmol/l = 110 mmol/l 0.5 x 60 kg = 30 l 30 l x 5 mmol = 150 mmol hypertonic saline has 513 mMol / l of Na 150 / 514 = 300 ml 300 ml over 1 or 2 hours then reassess REASSESS CLINICALLY and BIOCHEMICALLY q 1-2h

23 Rapid Correction of Hyponatremia central pontine myelinolysis risk risk is minimal if increase is 0.5 – 1.0 mmol/h

24 Case 30 year old female presents to ER –was hiking in the mountains –drank 10 liters of water per day on the advice of a well meaning friend –delirium with paranoia –Na = 110 mmol/l –What is your management?

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26 Case 78 year old female on general surgery –Post-op day 3 hemicolectomy for Duke B ca –Overnight developed delirium –Post-op IV order: ‘2/3 – 125 ml/h’ –Na = 120 mMol

27 Case 19 year old man presents to ER –progressive weakness –anorexia and weight loss –nauseated –Na = 128 mMol, K = 6.5 mMol

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29 Case 82 year old female in clinic –HTN on thiazide –feels well –Na = 125 mMol

30 Case 65 year old man on neurosurgery –post-op day 2 brain aneursym clip –Na = 129 mMol

31 Case 59 year old female –presents with pneumonia –day 4 feels strange –can eat and drink, likes tea –Na = 120 mMol

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33 Warm Up Case 81 year old female on stroke unit –doing poorly over last few days –now unconscious –Na = 176 mMol (normal mMol)

34 What are clinical features of hypernatremia?

35 Clinical Features Hypernatremia –lethargy –weakness –irritability –twitching –delirium –reduced level of consciousness –coma –seizures ‘neuromuscular irritability’

36 What are the causes of hypernatremia?

37

38 DDx – HyperNa + Not enough water! –no thirst –can’t act on thirst –can’t retain water –except for Normal Saline, not usually a salt issue

39 Case 81 year old female on stroke unit –doing poorly over last few days –now unconscious –Na = 176 mMol (normal mMol) –estimated weight 60 kg

40 Diagnosis? Management? –Solution –Volume –Rate

41 Solution Na + mmol/l Dextrose in Water 0 ½ Normal Saline 77 Ringer’s Lactate*130 Normal Saline154 Hypertonic Saline513 * Ringer’s Lactate: –Na+ 130 mmol, K+4 mmol, Ca mmol, Cl− 109 mmol, lactate 28 mmol –electrolyte content is isotonic (273 mOsmol/liter) in relation to the extracellular fluid (approx. 280 mOsmol/liter).

42 Rate of Correction Correct no faster than 0.5 – 1 mmol / hr Risk of cerebral edema 1.determine water deficit 2.determine duration of correction 3.rate = deficit / duration (index to hour) 4.consider ongoing losses 5.decide on re-assessment

43 Volume Water Deficit (Na+ measured – 140 mmol/l) 0.6 x kg mmol/l use 0.5 for females desired = 140 mMol

44 Calculate Free Water Deficit Water Deficit (176 mmol / l – 140 mmol/l) 0.5 x 60 x mmol/l 7,710 ml 36 mmol / 0.5 – 1.0 mmol/hr = 48 hr 160 ml/hr of ‘free water’ D5W or tube water at 160 ml/hr

45 Advanced Case 55 year old female –pituitary resection –post-op dilute polyuria –Na = 165 mMol

46 DDAVP IV / sq  1-2 ug q12 h nasal  10 – 40 ug / day (divide bid / tid) oral  0.1 – 1.2 mg / day (divide bid / tid) give hypotonic IV while getting control usually this is a planned event

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49 Warm Up Case 78 year old presents with sob –recent gout –indomethacin –creatinine 790 –K = 7.0 mMol

50 What are the clinical features of hyperkalemia?

51 Clinical Features death

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54 What are the causes of hyperkalemia?

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56 Potassium Hyperkalemia: –acute renal failure pre-renal renal: especially *drugs and toxins (acute!) post-renal –too much K –ACE-I, ARBs, spironolactone, NSAIDs Pseudohyperkalemia –check CBC and phlebotomy

57 Case 78 year old presents with sob –recent gout –indomethacin –creatinine 790 –K = 7.0 mMol

58 Case Restore renal function –D5-normal-bicarb (3 amps bicarb into 850 ml of D5W –kaliuresis  loop diuretic –remove obstruction Remove K from body –K binder  Resonium or Kayexalate –laxative Shift K into cells –create alkalosis, insulin, glucose, salbutamol Plan for Dialysis (order HBsAg, nephro)

59 Case General Principles –optimize cardiac output –mitigate all nephrotoxicity –minimize potassium sources

60 Case 78 year old man with CLL –routine blood work –WBC = 75,000 x 10 9 /l –K = 6.4 –ECG normal

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62 Case 65 year old man –post-op day 4 cholecystectomy –NS at 125 ml/hr –K = 2.8

63 What are the clinical features of hypokalemia?

64 Clinical Features hypokalemia –muscle twitch / spasm –dysrythmia –increase risk of atrial fibrillation

65 What are the causes of hypokalemia?

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67 Hypokalemia Epidemiological Approach –diuretics –failure to supplement –vomiting (suction) & diarrhea –hypomagnesemia –cortisol excess –amphotericin, platinum based chemotx

68 Normal and Flat ST

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70 How can potassium be replaced?

71 Potassium Replacement Oral whenever possible –KCl tablet 8 mEq (slow-K, micro-K) –KCl tablet 20 mEq (K-Dur) –KCl tablet 25 mEq (K-lyte effervescent) –KCl solution 10% IV if needed –20 – 40 mMol / l added to IV –10 mMol / hour max

72 Can hypokalemia be prevented among patients who need diuretics?

73 Potassium Avoid Kaliuresis –you can add / use potassium sparing diuretics

74 Case 24 year old female presents to ER –nausea, vomiting –Na = 132 –K = 6.8 –Cl = 100 –HCO3 = 5 –glucose = 28

75 Case Diabetic Ketoacidosis –potassium shift

76 Summary Diagnosis and Treatment: –hyponatremia –hypernatremia –hyperkalemia –hypokalemia

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79 Case 58 year old female –post-op hour 6 neck surgery –twitchy and trouble breathing –Calcium = 1.7 mMol (2.15 – 2.30 mMol)

80 DDx - hypocalcemia In hospital –injured parathyroid glands –acute pancreatitis –uncorrected calcium for albumin

81 Albumin Correction Corrected Ca = measured Ca + [(40 – alb) x 0.02] e.g. albumin is 20 g/l measured Ca = 1.90 mmol correction is  20 x 0.02 = = 2.30 mMol

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83 Case 58 year old female –post-op hour 6 neck surgery –twitchy and trouble breathing –Calcium = 1.7 mMol (2.15 – 2.30 mMol)

84 Calcium Replacement Oral Preferred –Calcium carbonate (500 mg elemental) –dose according to situation –vit D3  0.25 to 0.5 ug od IV if emergency –10% ca-gluconate 90 mg / 10 ml x 1 to 2 ampules each over 3 – 5 minutes or longer –10% ca-chloride270 mg / 10 ml (AVOID)

85 IV Calcium for EMERGENCY 10% Ca-gluconate x 6 amps into 500 ml of D5W = 540 mg / 560 ml = ~ 1 mg/ml 0.25 – 0.50 mg / kg / hour infusion BE CAREFUL – GOOD IV NEEDED MONITOR FREQUENTLY CO-ADMINISTER ORAL AND VIT D so as to GET OFF IV ASAP

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87 Case 59 year old female with breast cancer –obtunded –Ca = 4.5 mMol

88 Calcium Hypercalcemia –constipation –abdominal pain –general achiness –depressed mood –decreased LOC –coma

89 DDx Hypercalcemia Malignancy Hyperparathyroidism Excess Calcium / Vit D Fracture Bed rest

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91 Case 59 year old female with breast cancer –obtunded –Ca = 4.5 mMol

92 Calcium Case Calciuresis –Saline load –Furosemide Bisphosphonate –Zoledronic acid (Zometa) –Pamidronate, Clodronate

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94 Case 34 year old homeless man presents –Feels poorly –Day 2 PO4 = 0.20 mMol (0.8 – 1.5 mMol)

95 Ddx – Hypo PO4

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97 Case 34 year old homeless man presents –Feels poorly –Day 2 PO4 = 0.20 mMol (0.8 – 1.5 mMol)

98 Phosphate Sandoz Phosphate Milk and Food

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101 Case 55 yr old alcoholic –blood tests done –Mg = 0.8 mMol (1.2 – 2.2 mMol)

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