Presentation on theme: "March 19, 2015. Throughout the 1930’s, the Communist Party intensified support efforts for African Americans. The Communist Party attempted to address."— Presentation transcript:
Throughout the 1930’s, the Communist Party intensified support efforts for African Americans. The Communist Party attempted to address unemployment and job discrimination. Some African Americans were attracted to the party because they were ant-racist and were an interracial group. The Communist Party expelled racists, and gave key positions to African Americans.
James Ford, and African American, actually ran as the party’s vice-presidential candidate in the 1932 election. Few blacks actually joined the party Black workers were drawn to the party because it criticized white labor unions for not admitting black workers to their unions. The communists blamed capitalism for the low wages of black and white workers. They also blamed the leaders of labor for allowing business owners to continue the policy of “divide and rule.”
The Scottsboro case brought the attention of the Communist Party to many African Americans. Using what you know from your reading (page 657-658) as well as the film, answer the question that follows in paragraph form: In no less than 3 paragraphs, summarize the events that eventually led to the convictions of 5/9 Scottsboro Boys. In your opinion, please describe why you believe the accused were either guilty or innocent. Provide specific case details that would support your claim. Turn this essay in along with questions at the end of PPT.
The ILD rushed to the aid of the “boys” by appealing the convictions and death sentence to the Supreme Court. In Powell v. Alabama, the court ruled that the nine had not been given adequate legal counsel, and that the trial had taken place in a hostile environment. The accused right to due process as set forth in the 14 th Amendment had been violated. This ruling would eventually help future civil rights cases. The Supreme Court ordered a new trial. At the end of the new trial, another guilty verdict was reached.
In Norris v. Alabama, the Supreme Court ruled that all Americans have a right to a trial by jury of their peers. The fact that no blacks were on the Scottsboro juries denied the equal protection of the law, which the 14 th Amendment guaranteed. The court again ruled that blatant racial exclusion was evident and ruled for another trial.
Throughout the Scottsboro case, the NAACP tried to wrest control of the case from the Communist Party. The Communist Party used marches and demonstrations, and denounced many cautious middle-class organizations. The NAACP tried to appeal as a respectable organization for African Americans. Some black men and woman applauded the party. Other blacks ridiculed the party and called it a lie. The Communist Party asserted that the NAACP wanted to see the Scottsboro 9 convicted.
John P. Davis organized the NNC. It was modeled after the Joint Committee on National Recovery (JCNR). The JCNR was a coalition of black groups that fought for fairness early in the New Deal. The NNC was to be a federation of black groups on a national scale. Over 800 delegates representing 585 organizations attended the first meeting in Chicago. Notably, the NAACP was absent from the meeting.
A. Phillip Randolph was elected president and John P. Davis became executive secretary. Group agreed not to be dominated by any one political faction. Eventually had branches in over 70 cities. NNC was short on funds The NNC was able to gain for its members better jobs, housing, and adequate relief work. John Davis also believed that the Democratic Party would never allow African Americans to benefit from the New Deal. Eventually, the increasing importance of the communist within the NNC alienated most other groups, and the NNC became a front group for the communists.
The 1930’s saw many gains for African Americans, but also some of the worst racism, presumably backed by “science.” In 1932, the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) initiated a major study of syphilis, a deadly sexually transmitted disease. For the subjects of its program-entitled the Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Male Negro. The USPHS recruited 622 black men, all of them poor and many illiterate. Of the 622, 431 had advance cases
Syphilis is a bacterial infection usually spread by sexual contact. The disease starts as a painless sore — typically on your genitals, rectum or mouth. Syphilis spreads from person to person via skin or mucous membrane contact with these sores. After the initial infection, the syphilis bacteria can lie dormant in your body for decades before becoming active again. Early syphilis can be cured, sometimes with a single injection of penicillin. Without treatment, syphilis can severely damage your heart, brain or other organs, and can be life-threatening. ◦ Can eventually cause paralysis, insanity, and heart-failure ◦ -Mayo Clinic
The Tuskegee Study was called a treatment program, but was actually an experiment. The experiment was designed to chart the progression of the disease. The doctors hired a black nurse, Eunice Rivers, who convinced the men that they had “bad blood” and needed special treatments. Penicillin was available by 1940 to treat the patients, none of them received it. All men were given placebos(fake drugs with no effect-often a sugar pill), which was said to cure them.
Initially, the program was to last on 6-12 months, but was repeatedly extended. Men received physical exams and spinal taps, where fluid was examined from their spines. In a few cases, these spinal exams often resulted in paralysis or death. For almost 40 years, the doctors studied the men and performed autopsies on them when they died. None were ever treated. The public did not learn of this study until 1972.
The advisory panel concluded that the Tuskegee Study was "ethically unjustified"--the knowledge gained was sparse when compared with the risks the study posed for its subjects. In October 1972, the panel advised stopping the study at once. A month later, the Assistant Secretary for Health and Scientific Affairs announced the end of the Tuskegee Study. The black Attorney General Fred Gray of Alabama sued the U.S. government on behalf of the survivors families and settled out of court for $9 million
1) Essay 2) Why were some African Americans attracted to the Communist Party? 3) Who did the Communist Party blame for the problems in America during the 1930’s? 4) What was the ILD and how did they help during the Scottsboro case? 5) What was the NNC? Why did it eventually fail? 6) What was the Tuskegee Study? How long did it last? 7) Why was the study unethical? 8) What eventually happened to the study? 9) What compensation was given to study participants?