Eight months after the fire, a jury acquitted the factory owners, of any wrong doing. Twenty-three individual civil suits were brought against the owners of the Asch building. On March 11, 1913, three years after the fire, the owners settled. They paid 75 dollars per life lost. This tragedy led to a push for comprehensive safety and workers compensation laws.
Final Survivor Rose Freedman 18 years old (2 days away) Died February 2001 at the age of 107. Escaped by climbing up onto the roof
Social Reform #7 Early Civil Rights Movement African Americans were still fighting for basic rights guaranteed to them in the Constitution
Problems African Americans Faced Voter Restrictions –Poll Tax – Pay a fee to vote –Literacy Test – prove you could read & write to vote –Grandfather Clause – exempts a group of people from obeying a law provided they met certain conditions before law was passed
Problems African Americans Faced Jim Crow Laws – System of laws that segregated public services by race
Problems African Americans Faced Plessy v. Ferguson – “Separate but Equal” (1896) –Supreme Court ruled against Homer Plessy saying segregation was legal as long as separate facilities were equal
Problems African Americans Faced Lynching – mob’s illegal seizure & execution of a person, usually by hanging
African American Leaders Booker T. Washington – encouraged African Americans to become educated & learn a trade Wanted to work slowly and diligently towards rights – nothing radical
African American Leaders W.E.B. DuBois – encouraged Top 10% of African Americans to attend college & become leaders; Also started the N.A.A.C.P.
African American Leaders NAACP – National Association for the Advancement of Colored People –Worked through courts to gain equal rights for African Am.
Our Progressive Presidents Theodore Roosevelt Republican Youngest President Took office after McKinley was assassinated BIG PERSONALITY
What Does TR Do? Led fight to dissolve 40 monopolies and became known as “trust buster“ Promised a “Square Deal" or a fair shake for the average citizen. It includes: –Development of the FDA –Conservation of land
William Howard Taft Republican Promised to continue TR’s ideas Tried but lacked TR’s energy Our Progressive Presidents
William Taft Initiated 80 antitrust suits (more than TR!) Established the Interstate Commerce Commission to set railroad rates Submitted for review amendments for a Federal income tax and the direct election of Senators