Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11 Bacteria. Brucella abortus G-, coccobacillus Brucellosis in cattle Reproductive organs Sterility and abortions In humans – mild symptoms."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 11 Bacteria
Brucella abortus G-, coccobacillus Brucellosis in cattle Reproductive organs Sterility and abortions In humans – mild symptoms
Rickettsias G- coccobaillus Obligate intracellular parasites Transmitted by insects such as ticks
Obligate intracellular parasites Rickettsia rickettsii Rocky mountain spotted fever Southeastern parts of this country, transmitted by ticks Rash – palms and soles Treated during the early stages of the disease It can cause damage to the kidneys
Caulobacter Aquatic environments Has a stalk Attaches to algae and absorbs nutrients
Rhizobium Roots of plants beans and peas Convert nitrogen gas to ammonium ions Ammonium ions are used by the plants to make protein. Beneficial to plants.
Neisseria gonorrhoeae Gonorrhea - STD Gram negative diplococci Uses fimbriae to attach itself to the mucus membrane. Painful urination, discharge of pus. Pelvic inflammatory disease – sterility Cephalosporin, doxycycilne.
Neisseria gonorrhoeae Ophthalmia neonatorum – eye infection of the newborn. Lead to blindness, antibiotics are placed in the eyes as prophylaxis. Neisseria meningitidis Some people are asymptomatic carriers Aerosol Meningitis, throat infection
Yersinia pestis G- rod, plague Fleas from rats Southwestern – squirrels, chipmunks Direct contact Proliferate in the blood stream
Y. pestis Buboes – swelling of lymph nodes. Bubonic plague Mortality – 50 to 75% Streptomycin and tetracycline – prophylaxis Pneumonic plague – aerosol Mortality rate 100%
Vibrio cholerae G-, bent rod, single flagellum Intestine, toxin Cholera Cells lining the intestine Stimulate them to release water and electrolytes Profuse and watery diarrhea Rice water stools – mucus, epithelia cells, bacteria
Pasteurella multocida G- rod, normal flora of dogs and cats Oral cavity Dog or cat bites Local infection, septicemia Tetracycline
Hemophilus influenzae G- rod, throat of carriers Opportunist, aerosol, meningitis Compromised immune system - pneumonia
Chromatium G- rod, lakes and ponds Photosynthesis Hydrogen sulfide + CO2 sugar and sulfur Water + CO2 sugar + O2 (plants and algae) anoxygenic
Bdellovibrio G- rod, bent rod, flagellum Soil Periplasmic space of E.coli Pathogenic to E.coli
Desulfovibrio Sediments of lakes and ponds Anaerobic respiration Sulfur – final electron acceptor
Clostridium perfringens Gas gangrene Gangrene – death of a tissue due to the loss of blood supply Ferments carbohydrates and releases gas Toxins kill cells Bullet wounds, frost bites Amputation
Bacillus anthracis - anthrax Sheep, cattle – endospores are ingested from the soil – septicemia People at risk – work with animals Cutaneous anthrax – cuts and breaks in the skin. Inhalation anthrax – wool sorter’s disease Dangerous form of pneumonia Tetracycline
Lactobacillus G+ rod, aerotolerant Fermentation Does not use oxygen Produces lactic acid Normal flora – intestinal tract, oral cavity Used in yogurt production
Listeria monocytogenes Soil – contaminate dairy products such as cheese Grows in the refrigerated temperatures. Placenta – stillbirths and miscarriages. Weak immune system – meningitis.
Staphylococcus aureus G+ cocci, clusters, normal flora A strain – toxic shock syndrome – tampons – toxin – rash Damage to the blood vessels Nasal surgery – absorbent packing is used.
S. aureus A strain – food poisoning Custard, cream pie – toxin Food poisoning Heat stable Refrigerate the food product
Streptococcus pyogenes G+ cocci, chains normal flora in the throat of some people Aerosol – pharyngitis – strep throat Scarlet fever – lysogenized strain, phage DNA is inserted in the chromosome of the bacteria Erythrogenic toxin – pinkish red rash - skin Tongue becomes red and enlarged – strawberry tongue.
Corynebacterium diphtheriae G+ pleomorphic – irregular morphology Aerosol – tough grey membrane in the throat – fibrin, dead tissue, bacteria Lysogenized strain – diphtheria toxin – kills eukaryotic cells Damage to the heart and kidneys DTP vaccine – toxoid Treated with antitoxin
Mycobacterium tuberculosis Acid-fast, rod shaped Aerosol – dormant for years Lungs – spreads to other parts of the body Cough, weight loss - consumption Isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol
Mycobacterium bovis Bovine tuberculosis Contaminated milk Infects the bones Hunchbacked deformation of the spine BCG vaccine – avirulent strain of M. bovis