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Chapter 11 Bacteria. Brucella abortus G-, coccobacillus Brucellosis in cattle Reproductive organs Sterility and abortions In humans – mild symptoms.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11 Bacteria. Brucella abortus G-, coccobacillus Brucellosis in cattle Reproductive organs Sterility and abortions In humans – mild symptoms."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 11 Bacteria

2 Brucella abortus G-, coccobacillus Brucellosis in cattle Reproductive organs Sterility and abortions In humans – mild symptoms

3 Rickettsias G- coccobaillus Obligate intracellular parasites Transmitted by insects such as ticks

4 Obligate intracellular parasites Rickettsia rickettsii Rocky mountain spotted fever Southeastern parts of this country, transmitted by ticks Rash – palms and soles Treated during the early stages of the disease It can cause damage to the kidneys

5 Caulobacter Aquatic environments Has a stalk Attaches to algae and absorbs nutrients

6 Stalk (stem)



9 Rhizobium Roots of plants beans and peas Convert nitrogen gas to ammonium ions Ammonium ions are used by the plants to make protein. Beneficial to plants.

10 Neisseria gonorrhoeae Gonorrhea - STD Gram negative diplococci Uses fimbriae to attach itself to the mucus membrane. Painful urination, discharge of pus. Pelvic inflammatory disease – sterility Cephalosporin, doxycycilne.

11 Neisseria gonorrhoeae Ophthalmia neonatorum – eye infection of the newborn. Lead to blindness, antibiotics are placed in the eyes as prophylaxis. Neisseria meningitidis Some people are asymptomatic carriers Aerosol Meningitis, throat infection


13 Bordetella pertussis Gram negative coccobacillus Whooping cough Grows on cilia lining the trachea DTP – vaccine – pertussis Heat killed bacteria


15 Thiobacillus Chemoautotroph Gets energy from hydrogen sulfide Found in soil Gram-, rod shaped

16 Pseudomonas aeruginosa – G- rod Opportunist Water soluble pigment (blue-green) Burn and wound infections Gentamicin, polymyxin

17 Escherichia coli G- coccobacillus Normal flora of the intestinal tract Opportunist Strain O157:H7 – pathogen – cattle Bloody diarrhea

18 Salmonella typhi G- rod, typhoid fever Found in humans Carriers – gall bladder Fluoroquinilones, chloramphenicol Contaminated food or water

19 Salmonella enteritidis Salmonellosis Poultry and cattle Undercooked, contaminated food Fever, abdominal pain, diarrhea Fluid and electrolyte therapy Cooking the meat thoroughly

20 Shigella dysenteriae G- rod, shigellosis Humans Contaminated food Produces toxin Damage to the intestinal wall Fluoroquinilones

21 Opportunists Klebsiella pneumoniae – normal flora Proteus vulgaris Enterobacter Serratia marcescens – soil Endotoxin – lipid A Nosocomial infections Septic shock, pneumonia, urinary tract infections

22 Yersinia pestis G- rod, plague Fleas from rats Southwestern – squirrels, chipmunks Direct contact Proliferate in the blood stream

23 Y. pestis Buboes – swelling of lymph nodes. Bubonic plague Mortality – 50 to 75% Streptomycin and tetracycline – prophylaxis Pneumonic plague – aerosol Mortality rate 100%


25 Vibrio cholerae G-, bent rod, single flagellum Intestine, toxin Cholera Cells lining the intestine Stimulate them to release water and electrolytes Profuse and watery diarrhea Rice water stools – mucus, epithelia cells, bacteria


27 Pasteurella multocida G- rod, normal flora of dogs and cats Oral cavity Dog or cat bites Local infection, septicemia Tetracycline

28 Hemophilus influenzae G- rod, throat of carriers Opportunist, aerosol, meningitis Compromised immune system - pneumonia

29 Chromatium G- rod, lakes and ponds Photosynthesis Hydrogen sulfide + CO2  sugar and sulfur Water + CO2  sugar + O2 (plants and algae) anoxygenic

30 Bdellovibrio G- rod, bent rod, flagellum Soil Periplasmic space of E.coli Pathogenic to E.coli


32 Desulfovibrio Sediments of lakes and ponds Anaerobic respiration Sulfur – final electron acceptor

33 Myxococcus Gliding fruiting bacteria – G- Soil Vegetative cells glide over surfaces – slime trail Aggregate – fruiting body Nutrient depletion myxosopres


35 Cyanobacteria G-, carries on photosynthesis Aquatic environments Heterocysts – nitrogen to ammonium ions CO2 and water make sugar Oxygen is released


37 Chlamydia G- cocci Obligate intracellular parasite Elementary body – usually extracellular, dormant Reticulate body – intracellular, active


39 Chlamydia trachomatis Sexual contact Most common STD Urethritis doxycycline

40 Chlamydia trachomatis Common in the tropics, southwestern USA Direct contact, flies, towels Eye infection, scarring of cornea Blindness tetracycline


42 Chlamydia trachomatis Lymphogranuloma venereum - STD Tropics, Southeastern USA Grows in the lymphatic system Obstruction of lymph vessels Doxycycline

43 Chlamydia psittaci Birds – parrots, ducks, pigeons Bird droppings Opportunist Pneumonia tetracycline

44 Spirochetes Spiral shaped, axial filaments Treponema pallidum – syphilis STD, ulcer – site of inoculation – primary stage Secondary stage – bloodstream, rash on the skin & mucous membrane

45 T. pallidum Latent stage – no symptoms Tertiary syphilis – blindness, insanity, heart problems Congenital syphilis – from the mother to the fetus Stillbirths, mental retardation

46 Borrelia burgdorferi Lyme disease Transmitted by ticks from mice Rash at the bite site – bull’s eye rash, flu- like symptoms Paralysis, heart problems Arthritis



49 Leptospira interrogans Leptospirosis – hooked ends Infected or carrier dogs – urine Contaminated soil, water Nonspecific symptoms Damage to the liver and kidneys

50 Bacteroides Obligate anaerobe G- rod Normal flora – intestinal tract, oral cavity Opportunist – infects surgical wounds, puncture wounds

51 Fusobacterium G- rod, slender with pointed ends Oral cavity


53 Mycoplasma pneumoniae No cell wall Pleomorphic – irregular Different arrangements Aerosol Walking pneumonia – mild symptoms Not bedridden



56 Clostridium Gram + Obligate anaerobe Endospores Soil 3 pathogenic species

57 Clostridium tetani - tetanus Infects deep puncture wounds Endospores become vegetative cells Neurotoxin – spastic paralysis Stiffness of the muscles Lockjaw DTP vaccine – tetanus toxoid Antitoxin – antibodies Tetanus immune globulins (TIG)

58 Clostridium botulinum - botulism Improperly canned food Neurotoxin Flaccid paralysis Double vision, drooping eyelids Toxin is heat labile

59 Clostridium perfringens Gas gangrene Gangrene – death of a tissue due to the loss of blood supply Ferments carbohydrates and releases gas Toxins kill cells Bullet wounds, frost bites Amputation


61 Bacillus anthracis - anthrax Sheep, cattle – endospores are ingested from the soil – septicemia People at risk – work with animals Cutaneous anthrax – cuts and breaks in the skin. Inhalation anthrax – wool sorter’s disease Dangerous form of pneumonia Tetracycline

62 Lactobacillus G+ rod, aerotolerant Fermentation Does not use oxygen Produces lactic acid Normal flora – intestinal tract, oral cavity Used in yogurt production

63 Listeria monocytogenes Soil – contaminate dairy products such as cheese Grows in the refrigerated temperatures. Placenta – stillbirths and miscarriages. Weak immune system – meningitis.

64 Staphylococcus aureus G+ cocci, clusters, normal flora A strain – toxic shock syndrome – tampons – toxin – rash Damage to the blood vessels Nasal surgery – absorbent packing is used.


66 S. aureus A strain – food poisoning Custard, cream pie – toxin Food poisoning Heat stable Refrigerate the food product

67 Streptococcus pyogenes G+ cocci, chains normal flora in the throat of some people Aerosol – pharyngitis – strep throat Scarlet fever – lysogenized strain, phage DNA is inserted in the chromosome of the bacteria Erythrogenic toxin – pinkish red rash - skin Tongue becomes red and enlarged – strawberry tongue.


69 Corynebacterium diphtheriae G+ pleomorphic – irregular morphology Aerosol – tough grey membrane in the throat – fibrin, dead tissue, bacteria Lysogenized strain – diphtheria toxin – kills eukaryotic cells Damage to the heart and kidneys DTP vaccine – toxoid Treated with antitoxin



72 Mycobacterium tuberculosis Acid-fast, rod shaped Aerosol – dormant for years Lungs – spreads to other parts of the body Cough, weight loss - consumption Isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol

73 Mycobacterium bovis Bovine tuberculosis Contaminated milk Infects the bones Hunchbacked deformation of the spine BCG vaccine – avirulent strain of M. bovis

74 Mycobacterium leprae Leprosy, Hansen’s disease Face, fingers, toes Nodules, deformation Nasal secretions Armadillos


76 Nocardia asteroides Acid-fast, found in soil Infects hands and feet Streptomyces Soil Most of the antibiotics Geosmin – musty odor


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