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Museum Entrance Welcome to the Native American Housing Museum Cliff Dwellings Hogans Press for Curator Longhouses.

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Presentation on theme: "Museum Entrance Welcome to the Native American Housing Museum Cliff Dwellings Hogans Press for Curator Longhouses."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Museum Entrance Welcome to the Native American Housing Museum Cliff Dwellings Hogans Press for Curator Longhouses

3 Room 2 Cliff Dwellings Museum Entrance

4 Room 3 Longhouses Museum Entrance

5 Room 4 Dine` Hogans Museum Entrance

6 Apaches on Horseback Apaches were a nomadic tribe, which means that they travelled and did not typically stay anywhere permanently. Apaches were hunters and followed small game such as rabbits and deer. They constructed their houses out of nearby materials. There are bushes and trees that could have been gathered to build a wickiup. This is a prime location to set up camp due to the water source. I chose this picture, because it portrays the tribe as nomadic, and the materials readily available for housing is apparent. Return to Room Image acquired at: apache1.html

7 Bent branches form the framework of this Chiricahua Apache dwelling. This dome structure will soon be covered in grass or brush and tied in place with yucca by the women of the tribe. Women are the builders of the wickiups. These dwellings are waterproofed by covering the thatched grass with animal skins. I chose this picture, because the internal framework is apparent, showcasing its beautiful-dome shape. Return to Room Image acquired at: wickiup.jpg A Wickiup Under Construction

8 Traditional Wickiup In a matter of days, the wickiup is completed. Any repairs need to be done will be completed by the women. The wickiup has a hole in the middle to allow the smoke to escape from a central fire. Pottery is stored outside the wickiup. When it’s time to move on, the wickiup is torched. I chose this picture because it shows a completed dwelling. I like the artistry of the earthen jars. Return to Room Image acquired at: apache5-wikiup.html

9 Chiricahua Wickiup A Chiricahua family sits in the entrance of their wickiup. The family looks quite comfortable in their environmentally-friendly and camouflaged structure. This particular wickiup looks rather large. Most wickiups have a circular base of about 8 feet and a height of 5-6 feet. I included this picture, because it reminded me of something I read in New Worlds For All. A Micmac chief asked French visitors in the 17 th century, “Do we not have in our dwelling all the conveniences and advantages that you have in yours, such as reposing, drinking, and sleeping, eating, and amusing ourselves with friends?” Return to Room Image acquired at: cahua_medicine_man.jpg

10 Cliff Palace Cliff Palace is located at Mesa Verde National Park. It has 217 rooms and 23 kivas (a place for ceremonies). Cliff Palace was constructed by Ancient Puebloans. They built apartment-like housing. Wooden ladders were used to access the upper stories. As population increased, they just built another room. At Mesa Verde National Park, there are many other cliff-side apartment dwellings. Cliff Palace is incredible. To complete such a task without the benefit of technology is astounding. Baskets and yucca sandals have been found at Mesa Verde National Park, giving some insight as to how the people lived. Return to Room Image acquired at: 05.html

11 Keet Seel The Hisatsinom built Keet Seel prior to Navajos occupying the area in which Keet Seel is located. Even though it is now on Navajo land, it is not a Navajo structure. It is an Ancient Puebloan dwelling. The term “Hisatsinom” replaces the term “Anasazi.” Anasazi is a Navajo word which means “enemies of long ago.” Hopis are descendants of the Anasazi. However, Hopis object to the term Anasazi, because they never refer to someone as their enemy. I chose this picture because it provides a close-up view of a cliff dwelling. If you ever visit Keet Seel, you will see the toe holds that are imbedded in the rock that enabled the Hisatsinom to climb up to their house. Image acquired at: 22.html Return to Room

12 Masonry Example This is a section of a wall to a building at Chaco Canyon. Sandstone, mortar and wooden beams were the three primary construction materials. The Ancestral Puebloans shaped each sandstone block using harder stones collected from nearby river beds. The mortar between the blocks is a mixture of soil, water, and ash. Tiny pieces of stone are fitted in the mortar. This is called “chinking.” Chinking stones fill in the gaps within the mortar and add structural stability to the walls. I chose this picture, because it gives a detailed view of the construction of a typical Pueblo dwelling. Today, on the Hopi reservation, traditional Hopi homes are built using this method. Hopis are descended from Ancient Puebloans. Hopis refer to their ancestors as Hisatsinom. Return to Room Image acquired at: 16.html

13 Montezuma’s Castle Montezuma’s Castle is located near Camp Verde, Arizona. It was mistakenly named after an Aztec chieftain. However, this cliff dwelling was occupied by Sinagua Indians 1100 – 1400, several years before Christopher Columbus stepped foot on North America. It was built inside a rock overhang 70 feet above Beaver Creek. Montezuma’s Castle has 5 stories and 20 rooms. Around 1400, this dwelling was abandoned for reasons unknown. I picked this picture, because Montezuma’s Castle is high above the ground. Standing 70 feet below this high-rise dwelling, one realizes how dangerous it was to go home and leave home. How many people fell? What did they do to mend broken bones? Did they have a way to hoist game or water? Montezuma’s Castle is camouflaged inside the cliff, which leads me to wonder, who or what were they afraid of? Return to Room Image acquired at: 26.html

14 Longhouse Construction Houses reflect the materials available. The northeast had an abundance of trees. Therefore, tribes, such as the Iroquois, constructed longhouses out of trees. Rows of posts were put into holes dug into the ground. Wood is bent to form a semi-circle frame. The Iroquois tied the bent poles and posts together with long strips of bark. I chose this picture because it shows the framework of a longhouse. It shows bent wooden poles in the shape of a semi-circle. Return to Room Image acquired at: gure1longhouselg.gif

15 Bark Covered Longhouse After the framework was put into place, the longhouse was then covered with sheets of elm bark. Bark was peeled from large trees. Then, it was flattened, and rocks were placed on the bark to keep it from curling as it was drying. Elm tree bark has deep grooves. The Iroquois used these grooves to channel rain water. After the bark was placed over the frame, small poles were placed on the outside of the longhouse to keep the wind from ripping off the bark. I chose this picture because the bark and the outside poles are visible. Furthermore, the picture shows how tall a longhouse can be. Behind the longhouse, there are lots of trees. The forests were an important part of their culture. Deforestation by the colonists exhausted the Iroquois’ building materials. Return to Room Image acquired at: ml

16 Longhouse Interior Lay-Out The interior of a longhouse was divided into compartments. One family would live in the compartment on the left, and another family would live in the compartment on the right. A fire burned in the middle of the aisle. There could have been several fires burning in the aisles at one time. The Iroquois put holes in the roof to allow the smoke to escape. A piece of bark was used to the hole so that the flap could be opened and closed depending on the weather. A platform was added to provide storage for corn, pots, or tobacco. The framework poles provided drying racks for corn or fruit. I chose this picture because it reproduces Iroquois life inside the longhouse. Return to Room Image acquired at: gure3interiorlg.gif

17 Inside a Longhouse The Iroquois lead a communal life. Many families who were of the same clan would share a longhouse. The length of the longhouse depended on how many people lived inside. Longhouses ranged from 30 feet to 220 feet. European influences changed Iroquois housing. The Iroquois started building single-family log cabins. Communal living decreased, and the bonds between Iroquois families weakened. I chose this picture because it shows the openness of Iroquois living. Today people live private lives. The ties between members of the Iroquois community had to be incredibly strong to live daily life under the scrutiny of others. What if I had to live with my mom, dad, brother, sister-in-law, sister, brother-in-law, aunts, uncles, nieces, and nephews in a longhouse? Return to Room Image acquired at:

18 Male Hogan This is a picture of an early Navajo Hogan. This is called a forked-stick hogan or male hogan. It is a cone-shaped structure made out of packed mud. Male hogans were built during the 1600’s and 1700’s. Navajos began herding sheep. The introduction of sheep brought about a lifestyle change. As they acquired more and more sheep, Navajos accumulated more possessions. More possessions meant that they needed a bigger hogan. So they built a female hogan. I chose this picture because it is rare to see a male hogan. Today, male hogans are used for sweat lodges. The female hogan is the place where the family eats and sleeps. Also, the people outside the hogan indicate that the hogan was a home regardless of his rudimentary elements. Return to Room Image acquired at:

19 Female Hogan With the introduction of sheep and farming, Navajos needed more space. They built a larger rounder dwelling. This is called a female hogan. It is female because the hogan resembles a flared skirt. Ceremonies are held in hogans. A hogan is a large open room with a stove in the middle. All movements made inside the hogan are clockwise. Nails are not used. Door hinges used to be constructed from the soles of shoes. I chose this picture because it contrasts the male and female hogan. On the Navajo reservation, these kinds of hogans can still be seen. Even though they are not usually inhabited on a long-term basis, Navajos still stay in them when they are herding sheep. Return to Room Image acquired at:

20 Hexagonal Hogan The building of the railroad brought new materials, such as railroad ties. The railroad ties changed the hogan’s shape – from round to hexagon. The doorway always faces the east to welcome the morning sun. Because Navajos are sheepherders, the women weave rugs with intricate designs. A beautiful Navajo rug hangs in the doorway of a hogan. I chose this picture because it shows the changes of the hogan over time. Technology brought changes to housing structures. Also, the Navajo rug gives some insight into their culture. Navajo rugs are popular today. Rugs cost anywhere from hundreds of dollars to thousands of dollars. Return to Room Image acquired at:

21 Modern Hogan Hogans are an important part of the Navajo culture. On the Navajo reservation, it is common to see hogans. They are no longer built with railroad ties and mud, but they still have retained their shape and their ceremonial significance. Hogans have one room and are about 23 feet in diameter. If they are not occupied, they are used for healing ceremonies. If you ever enter a hogan always walk clockwise. Men sit on the south side, and women sit on the north side. If someone of great importance enters the hogan, he or she sits on the west side. I chose this picture because after hundreds of years Navajos still retain some of their culture, a culture that Europeans attempted to stamp out. Plus, this is a peaceful picture which symbolizes the tranquil nature of the occupants of the hogan. Return to Room Image acquired at:

22 Traditional Navajo Rug This is the right half of a large pictorial-style rug, woven in 1984 by Isabel John, a Navajo elder. She lives in Many Farms, Arizona. She depicts in her weaving the 9 th day of a Yeibeichai healing ceremony. Hogans are visible in the foreground and background. People have come for a ceremony that will take place in a hogan, or perhaps, due to the amount of sheep, it is time for butchering. I chose this picture because of the artistry. It also depicts Navajo life—sheep herding & butchering, ceremonies, and family togetherness. Return to Room Image acquired at:

23 Monica Modesitt Recently, I moved from Tuba City, Arizona to Las Vegas, Nevada. In Tuba City I taught 1 st grade Navajo and Hopi 1 st graders for several years. Also, I worked with the Hopi Tribe to develop a Hopi Culture Curriculum for grades K-6. Currently, I teach 4 th grade at McMillan Elementary School. While working on my museum, I listened to De-Has-De-Na, a song by Sidney Poolheco who is a member of the Hopi tribe. The sound of his voice calmed my nerves and enabled me to complete this project. This project afforded me the opportunity to practice with technology before introducing it to my students. I learned that there is a rich pictorial history of Indigenous People, and a picture adds a dimension that words couldn't account for. I was surprised to learn that the introduction of the railroad brought design changes to the hogan. I also learned that the Vikings lived in longhouses too. The media basically portrays all Native Americans as feather-headdress wearing tipi dwellers. This project shows the diversity of housing among the tribes, from cliff dwelling to hogan to igloo to longhouse to tipi to wickiup to wigwam. Completing this project has made me want to go back home to the reservation, where in some places there is no electricity or running water and sand blows in the cracks of the windows and coal has to be gathered for heat. Outsiders think we're poor, and we live in squalor. But it is our home and we are rich with the sound of the buffalo dance and the sound of the katsinas emerging from the kiva. There definitely is a spirit of peace and tranquility, one that can only be felt, never explained. Monica Modesitt Return to Room Note: Virtual museums were first introduced by educators at Keith Valley Middle School in Horsham, Pennsylvania. This template was designed by Dr. Christy Keeler based on one of the sample virtual museums provided by the Keith Valley staff at ISTE’s NECC Contact Dr. Keeler for more information on using this template.Keith Valley Middle School Dr. Christy KeelerKeith ValleyISTENECC Dr. Keeler


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