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ARCHITECTURE. SPECIFIC GOALS:  GIVE EXAMPLES OF MAJOR ARCHITECTURAL PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN IN ITALY (MOSTLY ROME AND VENICE).  NOTE THE SCULPTURAL ASPECTS.

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Presentation on theme: "ARCHITECTURE. SPECIFIC GOALS:  GIVE EXAMPLES OF MAJOR ARCHITECTURAL PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN IN ITALY (MOSTLY ROME AND VENICE).  NOTE THE SCULPTURAL ASPECTS."— Presentation transcript:

1 ARCHITECTURE

2 SPECIFIC GOALS:  GIVE EXAMPLES OF MAJOR ARCHITECTURAL PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN IN ITALY (MOSTLY ROME AND VENICE).  NOTE THE SCULPTURAL ASPECTS OF RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE  IDENTIFY IMPORTANT ARCHITECTS AND THE DISTINCTIVE ELEMENTS OF THEIR STYLES  IDENTIFY THEORIES AND ELEMENTS OF RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE THAT INFLUENCE MODERN ARCHITECTURE

3

4 BRAMANTE CREATED INNOVATIVE CENTRAL-PLAN DESIGNS BASED MOSTLY ON CLASSICAL SOURCES (INFLUENCE OF GREEK THOLOI AND ROMAN CIRCULAR TEMPLES), AND FIRST ARCHITECT OF NEW SAINT PETER’S.  CREATED INNOVATIVE CENTRAL-PLAN DESIGNS BASED MOSTLY ON CLASSICAL SOURCES (INFLUENCE OF GREEK THOLOI AND ROMAN CIRCULAR TEMPLES), AND FIRST ARCHITECT OF NEW SAINT PETER’S.

5 DONATO D’ANGELO BRAMANTE, TEMPIETTO, SAN PIETRO IN MONTORIO, ROME, ITALY, © MARTYRIUM: MARKS SPOT OF ST. PETER’S MARTYRDOM CLOSER TO ROMAN TEMPLE OR GREEK THOLOS? “SCULPTURAL” BALANCE AND AWARENESS OF LIGHT AND SHADOW

6 CLASSICAL ROMAN CIRCULAR TEMPLES HAD MORE OBVIOUS FRONTAL ORIENTATION PANTHEON, © TEMPLE OF VESTA, TIVOLI, EARLY 1 ST CENTURY B.C.E.

7 TEMPIETTO PLAN

8 TEMPIETTO: TUSCAN COLUMNS AND DORIC FRIEZE (TRIGLYPHS AND METOPES)

9 TEMPIETTO: BALUSTRADE, AND DRUM (ALTERNATING RECTANGULAR “WINDOWS” AND SHELL-CAPPED NICHES – LIGHT AND SHADOW!

10 BRAMANTE, PLAN FOR NEW SAINT PETER’S: RECALL THE EARLY RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTS' DESIRE TO FUSE CENTRAL AND AXIAL PLANS

11 MICHELANGELO

12 CHRISTOFORO FOPPA CARADOSSO, MEDAL SHOWING BRAMANTE’S DESIGN FOR THE NEW SAINT PETER’S, BRONZE, 2 1/4” DIAMETER. BRITISH MUSEUM

13 MICHELANGELO’S PLAN FOR NEW SAINT PETER’S, 1546 "CULT OF THE AXIS" - RELATION OF BUILDING TO HUMAN BODY

14 COMPARE BRAMANTE AND MICHELANGELO PLANS

15 MICHELANGELO, SAINT PETER’S (LOOKING NORTHEAST), VATICAN CITY, SCULPTURAL! UNDULATING WALLS, UNIFYING COLOSSAL PILASTERS (AND WOULD HAVE HAD “CALM” HEMISPHERICAL DOME)

16 VIEW OF SAINT PETER’S FROM THE TIBER (EAST). OGIVAL DOME BY GIACOMO DELLA PORTA DOME IS APPROX. 446' HIGH (AVERAGE STOREY = 10')

17 ANTONIO DA SANGALLO THE YOUNGER, PALAZZO FARNESE (LOOKING SOUTHEAST), ROME, ; COMPLETED BY MICHELANGELO,

18 DA SANGALLO, COURTYARD OF THE PALAZZO FARNESE, © 1517–1546. THIRD STORY AND ATTIC BY MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, PATRON? A CARDINAL

19 MICHELANGELO, PIAZZA DEL CAMPIDOGLIO, CAPITOLINE HILL. ROME, © "CULT OF THE AXIS" MICHELANGELO'S SOLUTION FOR TRAPEZOIDAL, UNEVEN SPACE – CREATED WHEN HE REVERSED ORIENTATION TO FOCUS ON VATICAN RATHER THAN SENATE

20 ÉTIENNE DUPÉRAC, PIAZZA DEL CAMPIDOGLIO, ENGRAVING, PAVING DESIGN = OVOID (NOT INSTALLED UNTIL 20 TH CENTURY – MUSSOLINI)

21 PALLADIO  VENETIAN ARCHITECT ANDREA DI PIETRO. INSPIRED BY VITRUVIUS. HIS RATIONAL, SYMMETRIC VERSION OF CLASSICISM STYLE LATER BECAME THE MODEL AND GAVE A NAME TO FOR NEO-CLASSICICAL (PALLADIAN) ARCHITECTURE. COGNOMEN FROM ATHENA PALLAS, GODDESS OF WISDOM. WROTE HIS OWN ARCHITECTURAL TREATISE, WHICH PARTIALLY ACCOUNTS FOR HIS CONTINUING INFLUENCE.

22 PALLADIO, VILLA ROTONDA (FORMERLY VILLA CAPRA), NEAR VICENZA, ITALY, © 1566–1570. BELVEDERE – FORM FOLLOWS FUNCTION!

23 VILLA ROTUNDA, PERFECTLY RADIALLY SYMMETRIC. PATRON? A PRIEST

24 INTERIOR OF DOME, VILLA ROTUNDA: NICE WEEKEND HOUSE FOR A PRIEST! NOTE BALUSTRADED AMBULATORY IN DOME

25 PLAN, VILLA ROTUNDA? GREEK CROSS, SQUARE, CIRCLE

26 THOMAS JEFFERSON, ROTUNDA, UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA, 1822.

27 PALLADIO, AERIAL VIEW OF SAN GIORGIO MAGGIORE, VENICE, ITALY, BEGUN 1566.

28 FAÇADE, SAINT GIORGIO MAGGIORE = DUAL FAÇADE PALLADIO'S SOLUTION FOR PROBLEM OF HOW TO PUT A "RATIONAL" FAÇADE ON BASILICA WITH HIGH NAVE AND LOW AISLES (AVOID THE "SCREEN" EFFECT OF CHURCHES SUCH AS SANTA MARIA NOVELLO

29 ALBERTI, FAÇADE OF SANTA MARIA NOVELLO,

30 CHOIR AND APSE, SAN GIORGIO MAGGIORE

31 MANNERISM

32 SPECIFIC GOALS:  UNDERSTAND MANNERISM AS AN ARTIFICIAL, IDIOSYNCRATIC STYLE IN CONTRAST TO THE NATURALISM OF THE HIGH RENAISSANCE.  EXAMINE MANNERISM AS INTERESTED IN EXPRESSIVE FORMS OF ART RATHER THAN CLASSICAL FORMS.  EXPLORE THE LIVES AND WORKS OF KEY ARTISTS OF THE MANNERIST STYLE.  RECOGNIZE THE ARTISTIC ELEMENTS OF MANNERIST PAINTING, SCULPTURE, AND ARCHITECTURE.

33 ARCHITECTURE

34 GIULIO ROMANO, interior courtyard facade of the Palazzo del GIULIO ROMANO, INTERIOR COURTYARD FACADE OF THE PALAZZO DEL TÈ, MANTUA, ITALY, 1525–1535. ANTI-CLASSICAL!

35 MICHELANGELO, VESTIBULE OF LAURENTIAN LIBRARY, FLORENCE, ; STAIRCASE MANNERIST ELEMENTS? FORM DOESN’T FOLLOW FUNCTION: MASSIVE BUT NONSTRUCTURAL COLUMNS, SPLIT COLUMNS, PURELY DECORATIVE VOLUTE CORBELS

36 PILASTERS FLANKING NICHES TAPER UPWARD. INTERRUPTED STRING COURSES

37 FORM DOESN’T EVEN ALLOW FUNCTION: STAIRWAY IS LOVELY SCULPTURE, BUT TRY WALKING ON IT! NOTE THAT THE OUTSIDE STAIRCASES DON’T GO ANYWHERE

38 GIACOMO DELLA PORTA, FAÇADE OF IL GESÙ, ROME, © 1575–1584. THIS IS NOT MANNERIST – IN SAME RENAISSANCE TRADITION AS ALBERTI

39 )DOME 2) NAVE 3)SIDE CHAPELS GIACOMO DA VIGNOLA, PLAN, IL GESÙ, ALSO NOT MANNERIST! VERY RATIONAL. MODEL FOR LATER CHURCHES

40 PAINTING

41 SPECIFIC GOALS:  RECOGNIZE BASIC FEATURES OF MANNERISM: MANNERED – CONTRIVED, "STYLISH" MANNERED – CONTRIVED, "STYLISH" ELONGATED FIGURES ELONGATED FIGURES LESS EMPHASIS ON BALANCE, SYMMETRY, AND RATIONAL COMPOSITION LESS EMPHASIS ON BALANCE, SYMMETRY, AND RATIONAL COMPOSITION UNUSUAL LIGHTING EFFECTS UNUSUAL LIGHTING EFFECTS  COMPARE AND CONTRAST MANNERIST PAINTING WITH THAT OF THE HIGH RENAISSANCE  IDENTIFY MAJOR MANNERIST ARTISTS, THEIR STYLES AND MAJOR WORKS

42 JACOPO DA PONTORMO, ENTOMBMENT OF CHRIST, CAPPONI CHAPEL, SANTA FELICITÀ, FLORENCE, ITALY, 1525–1528. OIL ON WOOD, 10' 3" X 6' 4". WHAT'S MANNERED? UNNATURAL SETTING, POSITIONS VOID IN CENTER NO CROSS (INVISIBLE) TINY HEADS, LONG LIMBS

43 PARMIGIANINO, MADONNA WITH THE LONG NECK, FROM THE BAIARDI CHAPEL, SANTA MARIA DEI SERVI, PARMA, 1534–1540. OIL ON WOOD, 7'1"X 4'4". UFFIZI. ELEGANCE UNNATURALLY LONG NECK, HAND, BABY, ANGEL LEG PERSPECTIVE DISCARDED

44 BRONZINO, VENUS, CUPID, FOLLY, AND TIME, © OIL ON WOOD, 5'1"X 4'8 ¼". NATIONAL GALLERY, LONDON. PATRON? COSIMO I DE' MEDICI AS A GIFT FOR ANOTHER MAN (FRANCIS I, FRANCE) TOTALLY UNNATURAL AS WELL AS LASCIVIOUS "MEANING AMBIGUOUS"

45 TINTORETTO, LAST SUPPER, OIL ON CANVAS, 12' X 18' 8'. SAN GIORGIO MAGGIORE, VENICE.

46 CHRIST IN THE HOUSE OF LEVI, FROM THE REFECTORY OF SANTI GIOVANNI E PAOLO, VENICE, OIL ON CANVAS, 18'3"X 42’. GALLERIA DELL’ACCADEMIA, VENICE. ORIGINALLY TITLED THE LAST SUPPER. A VERY RICH, STYLISH, MERRY LAST SUPPER!

47 DETAIL, HOUSE OF LEVI: DWARF JESTER AND "BLACKAMOOR" ENTERTAINERS – NOT EXACTLY THE RIGHT MESSAGE FOR THE COUNTER-REFORMATION

48 DOGS, DWARF, FAT RICH LORD, ETC.

49 PAOLO VERONESE, TRIUMPH OF VENICE, © OIL ON CANVAS, 29'8" X 19'. CEILING OF THE HALL OF THE GRAND COUNCIL, DOGE’S PALACE, VENICE. AWARENESS OF VIEWER! 45 o PROJECTION

50 BRONZINO, PORTRAIT OF A YOUNG MAN, © 1530– OIL ON WOOD, 3' ½" X 2' 5 ½". MET.

51 AND SOME MAYBE NOT MANNERIST PAINTERS...

52 PORTRAIT OF THE ARTIST'S SISTERS AND BROTHER © OIL ON PANEL, 2' 5 ¼" X 3' 1 ½". CORSHAM COURT, WILSHIRE WOMAN ARTIST: SOPHONSIBA ANGUISSOLA

53 WHAT STYLE?

54 ANGUISSOLA, SELF PORTRAIT, OIL ON CANVAS, 19.5 X 12.5 CM. KUNSTHISTORISCHES MUSEUM, VIENNA

55 ANGUISSOLA, PRADO PHILIP II, © OIL ON CANVAS, 88 X 72 CM. MUSEO DEL PRADO, MADRID, SPAIN ANGUISSOLA WAS COURT PAINTER TO PHILIP II

56 ANGUISSOLA, ELISABETH OF VALOIS © (DAMAGED) OIL ON CANVAS, 68 × 54 CM. KUNSTHISTORISCHE S MUSEUM, VIENNA.

57 ANGUISSOLA, SELF PORTRAIT, 1610

58 CORREGIO, ASSUMPTION OF THE VIRGIN, CEILING OF PARMA CATHEDRAL, FRESCO. 35' 10" X 27' 11". RENAISSANCE, MANNERIST, EARLY BAROQUE?

59 CORREGIO, IO AND ZEUS, © OIL ON CANVAS, × 70.5 CM. KUNSTHISTORISCHES MUSEUM. ZEUS – INVISIBLE

60 SCULPTURE

61 SPECIFIC GOALS:  NOTE DISTINCTIVE ELEMENTS IN MANNERIST SCULPTURE, ESPECIALLY GROTESQUERIES AND REVIVAL OF FIGURA SERPENTINATA  IDENTIFY THE MANNERIST SCULPTORS AND THEIR MAJOR WORKS

62 BENVENUTTO CELLINI, SALTCELLAR OF FRANCIS I, GOLD, ENAMEL, AND EBONY, 10 ¼" X 1' 1' 1 / 8 ". KUNSTHISOTRISCHES MUSEUM.

63 CELLINI, PERSEUS WITH THE HEAD OF MEDUSA, BRONZE, 18' HIGH. LOGGIA DEI LANZI, PIAZZA DELLA SIGNORIA, FLORENCE. GROTESQUE THEMES ALSO CHARACTERISTICALLY MANNERIST

64 GIOVANNI DA BOLOGNA, ABDUCTION OF THE SABINE WOMEN (OR WHATEVER!), LOGGIA DEI LANZI, PIAZZA DELLA SIGNORIA, FLORENCE, ITALY, 1579–1583. MARBLE, 13'5 ½" HIGH. FIGURATA SERPENTINA (DUE TO REDISCOVERY (OR MICHELANGELO SCULPTING) THE LAOCÖON). FIRST LARGE-SCALE 360 o SCUPTURE SINCE ANTIQUITY

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