Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Community Structure & Biodiversity. Community  All the populations that live together in a habitat  Type of habitat shapes a community’s structure.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Community Structure & Biodiversity. Community  All the populations that live together in a habitat  Type of habitat shapes a community’s structure."— Presentation transcript:

1 Community Structure & Biodiversity

2 Community  All the populations that live together in a habitat  Type of habitat shapes a community’s structure

3 Factors Shaping Community Structure  Climate and topography  Available foods and resources  Adaptations of species in community  Species interactions  Arrival and disappearance of species  Physical disturbances

4 Niche Sum of activities and relationships in which a species engages to secure and use resources necessary for survival and reproduction Sum of activities and relationships in which a species engages to secure and use resources necessary for survival and reproduction

5 Realized & Fundamental Niches  Fundamental niche Theoretical niche occupied in the absence of any competing species Theoretical niche occupied in the absence of any competing species  Realized niche Niche a species actually occupies Niche a species actually occupies  Realized niche is some fraction of the fundamental niche

6 Species Interactions  Most interactions are neutral; have no effect on either species  Commensalism helps one species and has no effect on the other  Mutualism helps both species

7 Species Interactions  Interspecific competition has a negative effect on both species  Predation and parasitism both benefit one species at a cost to another

8 Symbiosis  Living together for at least some part of the life cycle  Commensalism, mutualism, and parasitism are forms of symbiosis

9 Mutualism  Both species benefit  Some are obligatory; partners depend upon each other Yucca plants and yucca moth Yucca plants and yucca moth Mycorrhizal fungi and plants Mycorrhizal fungi and plants

10 Yucca and Yucca Moth  Example of an obligatory mutualism  Each species of yucca is pollinated only by one species of moth  Moth larvae can grow only in that one species of yucca

11 Fig. 46-3a, p.823

12 Fig. 46-2b, p.822

13 Fig. 46-4, p.823 Sea Anemone and Fish

14 Competition  Interspecific - between species  Intraspecific - between members of the same species  Intraspecific competition is most intense

15 Forms of Competition  Competitors may have equal access to a resource; compete to exploit resource more effectively  One competitor may be able to control access to a resource, to exclude others

16 Interference Competition Least chipmunk is excluded from piñon pine habitat by the competitive behavior of yellow pine chipmunks Yellow Pine Chipmunk Least Chipmunk

17 Fig. 46-5a, p.824

18 Competitive Exclusion Principle When two species compete for identical resources, one will be more successful and will eventually eliminate the other

19 Gause’s Experiment Paramecium caudatum Paramecium aurelia Figure 47.6 Page 825 Species grown together

20 Hairston’s Experiment  Two salamanders species overlap in parts of their ranges  Removed one species or the other in test plots  Control plots unaltered  5 years later, salamander populations were growing in test plot

21 Fig. 46-7, p.825 P. glutinosis P. jordani

22 Resource Partitioning  Apparent competitors may have slightly different niches  May use resources in a different way or time  Minimizes competition and allows coexistence Figure 47.8 Page 825

23 Predation  Predators are animals that feed on other living organisms  Predators are free-living; they do not take up residence on their prey

24 Coevolution  Joint evolution of two or more species that exert selection pressure on each other as an outcome of close ecological interaction  As snail shells have thickened, claws of snail-eating crabs have become more massive

25 Predator-Prey Models  Type I model: Each individual predator will consume a constant number of prey individuals over time  Type II model: Consumption of prey by each predator increases, but not as fast as increases in prey density  Type III model: Predator response is lowest when prey density is lowest

26 Fig. 46-9a, p.826

27 Fig. 46-9c, p.826

28 Variation in Cycles  An association in predator and prey abundance does not always indicate a cause and effect relationship  Variations in food supply and additional predators may also influence changes in prey abundance

29 Canadian Lynx and Snowshoe Hare  Show cyclic oscillations  Krebs studied populations for ten years  Fencing plots delayed cyclic declines but didn’t eliminate them  Aerial predators, plant abundance also involved  Three-level model

30 Fig a, p.827

31 Fig b, p.827

32 Fig c, p.827

33 Prey Defenses  Camouflage  Warning coloration  Mimicry  Moment-of-truth defenses

34 Fig a, p.828 Camouflage

35 Fig b, p.828 Camouflage

36 Fig c, p.828 Camouflage

37 Fig a, p.829 Mimicry

38 Fig b, p.829 Mimicry

39 Fig c, p.829 Mimicry

40 Fig d, p.829 Mimicry

41 Predator Responses  Any adaptation that protects prey may select for predators that can overcome that adaptation  Prey adaptations include stealth, camouflage, and ways to avoid chemical repellents

42 Fig a, p.829

43 Fig b, p.829

44 Fig d, p.829

45 Parasitism  Parasites drain nutrients from their hosts and live on or in their bodies  Natural selection favors parasites that do not kill their host too quickly

46 Fig a, p.830

47 Kinds of Parasites  Microparasites  Macroparasites  Social parasites  Parasitoids

48 Fungus and Frogs  Amphibians are disappearing even in undisturbed tropical forests  Infection by a parasitic chytrid is one of the causes of the recent mass deaths

49 Parasitic Plants  Holoparasites Nonphotosynthetic; withdraw nutrients and water from young roots Nonphotosynthetic; withdraw nutrients and water from young roots  Hemiparasites Capable of photosynthesis, but withdraw nutrients and water from host Capable of photosynthesis, but withdraw nutrients and water from host

50 Fig a, p.830 Devil’s Hair

51 Fig b, p.830 Devil’s Hair

52 Parasitioids  Insect larvae live inside and consume all of the soft tissues of the host  Used as agents of biological control  Can act as selective pressure on host

53 Fig , p.831

54 The Cowbird  Brown-headed cowbirds lay their eggs in nests constructed by other “host” bird species. These hosts are unable to differentiate between cowbird eggs and their own  Cowbird hatchlings shove the other eggs out of the owner’s nest and demand to be fed.

55 The Cowbird  Parasitic behavior has perpetuated cowbird genes for thousands of years

56 Fig a, p.831

57 Fig b, p.831

58 Ecological Succession  Change in the composition of species over time  Classical model describes a predictable sequence with a stable climax community

59 Types of Succession  Primary succession - new environments  Secondary succession - communities were destroyed or displaced

60 Pioneer Species  Species that colonize barren habitats  Lichens, small plants with brief life cycles  Improve conditions for other species who then replace them

61 Climax Community  Stable array of species that persists relatively unchanged over time  Succession does not always move predictably toward a specific climax community; other stable communities may persist

62 Fig a, p.832

63 Fig b, p.832

64 Cyclic Changes  Cyclic, nondirectional changes also shape community structure  Tree falls cause local patchiness in tropical forests  Fires periodically destroy underbrush in sequoia forests

65 Fig a, p.833

66 Fig b, p.833

67 Fig c, p.833

68 Restoration Ecology  Natural restoration of a damaged community can take a very long time  Active restoration is an attempt to reestablish biodiversity in an area  Ecologists are actively working to restore reefs, grasslands, and wetlands

69 Community Instability Disturbances can cause a community to change in ways that persist even if the change is reversed

70 Keystone Species  A species that can dictate community structure  Removal of a keystone species can cause drastic changes in a community; can increase or decrease diversity

71 Fig a, p.834

72 Fig b, p.834

73 Lubchenco Experiment TidepoolsRocks exposed at high tide Periwinkles promote or limit diversity in different habitats Figure Page 834

74 Species Introductions  Introduction of a nonindigenous species can decimate a community  No natural enemies or controls  Can outcompete native species


Download ppt "Community Structure & Biodiversity. Community  All the populations that live together in a habitat  Type of habitat shapes a community’s structure."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google