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COMMUNITY ECOLOGY. YOU MUST KNOW… THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A FUNDAMENTAL NICHE AND A REALIZED NICHE THE ROLE OF COMPETITIVE EXCLUSION IN INTERSPECIFIC COMPETITION.

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Presentation on theme: "COMMUNITY ECOLOGY. YOU MUST KNOW… THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A FUNDAMENTAL NICHE AND A REALIZED NICHE THE ROLE OF COMPETITIVE EXCLUSION IN INTERSPECIFIC COMPETITION."— Presentation transcript:

1 COMMUNITY ECOLOGY

2 YOU MUST KNOW… THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A FUNDAMENTAL NICHE AND A REALIZED NICHE THE ROLE OF COMPETITIVE EXCLUSION IN INTERSPECIFIC COMPETITION THE SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIPS OF PARASITISM, MUTUALISM, AND COMMENSALISM

3 YOU MUST KNOW… THE IMPACT OF KEYSTONE SPECIES ON COMMUNITY STRUCTURE THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SUCCESSION

4 CONCEPT 54.1 COMMUNITY INTERACTIONS ARE CLASSIFIED BY WHETHER THEY HELP, HARM, OR HAVE NO EFFECT ON THE SPECIES INVOLVED

5 COMMUNITY – A GROUP OF POPULATONS OF DIFFERENT SPECIES LIVING CLOSE ENOUGH TO INTERACT INTERSPECIFIC INTERACTIONS – MAY BE POSITIVE FOR ONE SPECIES, NEGATIVE, OR NEUTRAL AND INCLUDE COMPETITION, PREDATION, AND SYMBIOSES

6 INTERSPECIFIC – BETWEEN TWO DIFFERENT GROUPS INTRASPECIFIC – COMPETITION WITHIN THE SAME SPECIES EX – 2 MALES FIGHTING OVER THE SAME TERRITORY

7 INTERSPECIFIC COMPETITIONS OCCURS WHEN RESOURCES ARE IN SHORT SUPPLY A -/- INTERACTION BETWEEN THE SPECIES INVOLVED 2 CONCEPTS COMPETITIVE EXCLUSION PRINCIPLE NICHES

8 COMPETITIVE EXCLUSION PRINCIPLE WHEN TWO SPECIES ARE VYING FOR A RESOURCE, EVENTUALLY THE ONE WITH THE SLIGHT REPRODUCTIVE ADVANTAGE WILL ELIMINATE THE OTHER

9 NICHES THE NICHE OF A SPECIES IS DETERMINED BY THE HABITAT IN WHICH IT LIVES THE ECOLOGICAL NICHE IS THE SUM OF THE HABITAT REQUIREMENTS (BIOTIC & ABIOTIC RESOURCES) THAT THE SPECIES USES IN ITS ENVT THAT ALLOW A SPECIES TO PERSIST AND PRODUCE OFFSPRING

10 FUNDAMENTAL NICHE – THE NICHE POTENTIALLY OCCUPIED BY THE SPECIES REALIZED NICHE – A PORTION OF THE FUNDAMENTAL NICHE THE SPECIES ACTUALLY OCCUPIES

11 PREDATION A +/- INTERACTION BETWEEN TWO SPECIES WHERE THE PREDATOR EATS THE PREY

12 DEFENSES CRYPTIC COLORATION - CAMOUFLAGE APOSEMATIC OR WARNING COLORATION – A POISONOUS ANIMAL IS BRIGHTLY COLORED AS A WARNING TO OTHER ANIMALS BATESIAN MIMICRY – A HARMLESS SPECIES HAS EVOLVED TO MIMIC THE COLORATION OF AN UNPALATABLE OR HARMFUL SPECIES HERBIVORY – A +/- INTERACTION WHERE AN HERBIVORE EATS PART OF A PLANT OR ALGA, IT’S ADVANTAGEOUS FOR AN ANIMAL TO BE ABLE TO DISTINGUISH TOXIC FROM NONTOXIC PLANTS

13 SYMBIOSIS OCCURS WHEN INDIVIDUALS LIVE IN DIRECT CONTACT WITH ONE ANOTHER PARASITISM – A +/- INTERACTION MUTUALISM – A +/+ INTERACTION COMMENSALISM – BENEFITS ONE SPECIES BUT NEITHER HARMS NOR HELPS THE OTHER SPECIES (+/o) EX – FERN GROWING IN THE SHADE OF ANOTHER PLANT

14 TYPES OF ANIMAL LEARNING ASSOCIATIVE LEARNING – ANIMALS TAKE ONE STIMULUS AND ASSOCIATE IT WITH ANOTHER CLASSICAL CONDITIONING (a type of associative learning) – ONE STIMULUS IS SUBSTITUTED FOR ANOTHER TO EVOKE THE SAME RESPONSE (PAVLOV)

15 FIXED-ACTION PATTERN – INNATE, PREPROGRAMMED RESPONSE TO A STIMULUS HABITUATION – THE LOSS OF RESPONSIVENESS TO UNIMPORTANT STIMULI IMPRINTING – INNATE BEHAVIOR THAT IS LEARNED DURING A CRITICAL PERIOD EARLY IN LIFE. ONCE MADE, IT IS IRREVERSIBLE

16 INSIGHT LEARNING – THE ABILITY TO DO SOMETHING RIGHT THE FIRST TIME WITH NO PRIOR EXPERIENCE. IT REQUIRES REASONING ABILITY. OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING – TO LEARN HOW TO DO SOMETHING BY WATCHING ANOTHER INDIVIDUAL DO IT FIRST OPERANT CONDITIONING – BASED ON TRIAL AND ERROR. THE ASSOCIATION IS MADE BETWEEN THE ANIMAL’S OWN BEHAVIOR AND A RESPONSE.

17 CONCEPT 54.2 DOMINANT AND KEYSTONE SPECIES EXERT STRONG CONTROLS ON COMMUNITY STRUCTURE

18 SPECIES DIVERSITY – MEASURES THE NUMBER OF DIFFERENT SPECIES AND THE RELATIVE ABUNDANCE OF EACH SPECIES TROPIC STRUCTURE – REFERS TO THE FEEDING RELATIONSHIPS FOOD CHAIN – THE TRANSFER OF FOOD ENERGY FROM PLANTS THROUGH HERBIVORE THROUGH CARNIVORES THROUGH DECOMPOSERS FOOD WEB – CONSISTS OF TWO OR MORE FOOD CHAINS LINKED TOGETHER

19 DOMINANT SPECIES – HAVE THE HIGHEST BIOMASS (THE SUM WEIGHT OF ALL THE MEMBERS OF A POPULATION) KEYSTONE SPECIES – EXERT CONTROL ON COMMUNITY STRUCTURE BY THEIR IMPORTANT ECOLOGICAL NICHES

20 CONCEPT 54.3 DISTURBANCE INFLUENCES SPECIES DIVERSITY AND COMPOSITION

21 DISTURBANCE STORM, FIRE, HUMAN ACTIVITY, ETC. THAT CHANGES A COMMUNITY BY REMOVING ORGANISMS OR CHANGING RESOURCE AVAILABILITY NOT NECESSARILY BAD

22 INTERMEDIATE DISTURBANCE HYPOTHESIS STATES THAT MODERATE LEVELS OF DISTURBANCE CREATE CONDITIONS THAT FOSTER GREATER SPECIES DIVERSITY THAN LOW OR HIGH LEVELS OF DISTURBANCE

23 ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION THE TRANSITIONS IN SPECIES COMPOSITION IN A CERTAIN AREA OVER ECOLOGICAL TIME

24 PRIMARY SUCCESSION – PLANTS AND ANIMALS GRADUALLY INVADE A REGION THAT WAS VIRTUALLY LIFELESS WHERE SOIL HAS NOT YET FORMED EX – GRADUAL COLONIZATION OF A NEWLY FORMED VOLCANIC ISLAND SECONDARY SUCCESSION – OCCURS WHEN AN EXISTING COMMUNITY HAS BEEN CLEARED BY A DISTURBANCE THAT LEAVES THE SOIL INTACT

25 CONCEPT 54.4 BIOGEOGRAPHIC FACTORS AFFECT COMMUNITY BIODIVERSITY

26 LATITUDE OF THE COMMUNITY – PLANT AND ANIMAL LIFE IS GENERALLY MORE ABUNDANT IN TROPICS AREA OF THE COMMUNITY – IF ALL OTHER FACTORS ARE HELD EQUAL, THE LARGER THE GEOGRAPHIC AREA OF A COMMUNITY IS, THE MORE SPECIES IT HAS

27 ISLAND BIOGEOGRAPHY RATES OF IMMIGRATION AND EXTINCTION ARE INFLUENCED BY THE SIZE OF THE ISLAND AND THE DISTANCE OF THE ISLAND FROM THE MAINLAND ( THE GREATER THE SIZES OF THE ISLAND, THE HIGHER THE IMMIGRATION RATES AND LOWER THE RATES OF EXTINCTION) AS DISTANCE FROM THE MAINLAND INCREASES, THE RATE OF IMMIGRATION FALLS AND EXTINCTION RATES INCREASE


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