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Differentiating Instruction in Elementary Mathematics Bay School District July 14 - 15, 2008 "In the end, all learners need your energy, your heart and.

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Presentation on theme: "Differentiating Instruction in Elementary Mathematics Bay School District July 14 - 15, 2008 "In the end, all learners need your energy, your heart and."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Differentiating Instruction in Elementary Mathematics Bay School District July , 2008 "In the end, all learners need your energy, your heart and your mind. They have that in common because they are young humans. How they need you however, differs. Unless we understand and respond to those differences, we fail many learners." * * Tomlinson, C.A. (2001). How to differentiate instruction in mixed ability classrooms (2nd Ed.). Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Dr. Nanci Smith, Ph.D. Educational Consultant Curriculum and Professional Development Cave Creek, AZ

3 Thinking About Your Students Use the categories below to cluster your students according to their learning needs. Feel free to add or disregard categories. Some students may fit into more than one category. Needs Extra Practice on Basic Skills Needs Extra Time to Complete Tasks Has Strong Interests Often Not Reflected in School Tasks Works Better Independently Works Better Collaboratively Likes Practical, Relevant, Hands-On Tasks Has a Highly Creative Approach to Learning Needs to Work Ahead (Advanced Work) Needs Additional Teaching

4 My Appointment Clock Round the Clock Learning Buddies Make an appointment with 12 different people – one for each hour on the clock. Be sure you both record the appointment on your clocks. Only make the appointment if there is an open slot at that hour on both of your clocks. Tape this paper inside a notebook, or to something that you will bring to class each day.

5 What is Differentiation? Look at the following 7 slides in the packet and reflect on what you know and have heard about differentiation. Ponder on your own: –What does this tell me about differentiation? –If this statement were true, what would I see in a classroom? –What would a teacher say? –What would students be doing? (Jot down your thoughts and observations – 4 minutes) Pair with someone and share your ideas. (4 minutes) Share with others (4 minutes)

6 What Differentiated Instruction… IS Differentiated instruction is more QUALITATIVE than quantitative. Differentiated instruction provides MULTIPLE approaches to content, process, and product. Differentiated instruction is STUDENT CENTERED. Differentiated instruction is a BLEND of whole class, group, and individual instruction. Differentiated instruction is "ORGANIC". IS NOT Individual instruction Chaotic Just another way to provide homogenous instruction (You DO use flexible grouping instead) Just modifying grading systems and reducing work loads More work for the "good" students and less and different for the "poor" students

7 Differentiated Instruction Defined “Differentiated instruction is a teaching philosophy based on the premise that teachers should adapt instruction to student differences. Rather than marching students through the curriculum lockstep, teachers should modify their instruction to meet students’ varying readiness levels, learning preferences, and interests. Therefore, the teacher proactively plans a variety of ways to ‘get at’ and express learning.” Carol Ann Tomlinson

8 “Differentiation is making sure that the right students get the right learning tasks at the right time. Once you have a sense of what each student holds as ‘given’ or ‘known’ and what he or she needs in order to learn, differentiation is no longer an option; it is an obvious response.” Assessment as Learning: Using Classroom Assessment to Maximize Student Learning Lorna M. Earl Corwin Press, Inc. – 2003 – pp

9 Differentiation Is a teacher’s response to learner’s needs Guided by general principles of differentiation Respectful tasks Flexible groupingContinual assessment Teachers Can Differentiate Through: Content Process Product Environment According to Students’ ReadinessInterestLearning Profile Through a range of strategies such as: Multiple intelligences…Jigsaw…4MAT…Graphic Organizers…RAFTS Compacting…Tiered assignments…Leveled texts…Complex Instruction… Learning Centers

10 What’s the point of differentiating in these different ways? Readiness Growth Interest Learning Profile Motivation Efficiency

11 for Interest – Readiness – Learning Profile by Self – Peers - Teachers

12 Key Principles of a Differentiated Classroom The teacher is clear about what matters in subject matter.The teacher is clear about what matters in subject matter. All students participate in respectful work.All students participate in respectful work. The teacher understands, appreciates, and builds upon student differences.The teacher understands, appreciates, and builds upon student differences. Assessment and instruction are inseparable.Assessment and instruction are inseparable. The teacher adjusts content, process, and product in response to student readiness, interests, and learning profile.The teacher adjusts content, process, and product in response to student readiness, interests, and learning profile. Students and teachers are collaborators in learning.Students and teachers are collaborators in learning. Goals of a differentiated classroom are maximum growth and individual success.Goals of a differentiated classroom are maximum growth and individual success. Flexibility is the hallmark of a differentiated classroom.Flexibility is the hallmark of a differentiated classroom. The teacher is clear about what matters in subject matter.The teacher is clear about what matters in subject matter. All students participate in respectful work.All students participate in respectful work. The teacher understands, appreciates, and builds upon student differences.The teacher understands, appreciates, and builds upon student differences. Assessment and instruction are inseparable.Assessment and instruction are inseparable. The teacher adjusts content, process, and product in response to student readiness, interests, and learning profile.The teacher adjusts content, process, and product in response to student readiness, interests, and learning profile. Students and teachers are collaborators in learning.Students and teachers are collaborators in learning. Goals of a differentiated classroom are maximum growth and individual success.Goals of a differentiated classroom are maximum growth and individual success. Flexibility is the hallmark of a differentiated classroom.Flexibility is the hallmark of a differentiated classroom. Source: Tomlinson, C. (2000). Differentiating Instruction for Academic Diversity. San Antonio, TX: ASCD

13 There are two keys to differentiation: 1.Know your kids 2.Know your content

14 There are two keys to differentiation: 1.Know your kids 2.Know your content

15 READINESS What does READINESS mean? It is the student’s entry point relative to a particular understanding or skill. C.A.Tomlinson, 1999

16 BRAIN RESEARCH Reticular Activating System RAS = “Toggle Switch” HIGHMIDDLELOW Hot (EEG)Mild (EEG)Cold (EEG – sleeplike) Limbic arousedCortical arousalSleep (depression) Flight / FightProblem SolvingRelaxation Out of ControlIn ControlOff Duty CarbohydratesProteinsCarbohydrates/Dairy BurnoutAchievementDepression Extreme ChallengeModerate ChallengeNo Challenge Only one of these three states is activated (aroused) at a time: “Certain motivational states which interfere with learning condition are especially dangerous: anxiety and boredom. Anxiety occurs primarily when teachers expect too much from students; boredom occurs when teachers expect too little.” – Howard Gardner Learning only happens when the toggle switch is in the middle position

17 Advanced Learners ♦ Advanced learners can become mentally lazy, even though they do well in school. ♦ Advanced learners may become “hooked” on the trappings of success. ♦ Advanced learners may become perfectionists. ♦ Advanced learners may fail to develop a sense of self-efficacy. ♦ Advanced learners may fail to develop study and coping skills.

18 Pre-Assessment What the student already knows about what is being planned What standards, objectives, concepts & skills the individual student understands What further instruction and opportunities for mastery are needed What requires reteaching or enhancement What areas of interests and feelings are in the different areas of the study How to set up flexible groups: Whole, individual, partner, or small group

19 What Do You Know About Proportional Reasoning? Description DefinitionInformation Examples Non-examples Proportional Reasoning

20 Pre-Assessment What the student already knows about what is being planned What standards, objectives, concepts & skills the individual student understands What further instruction and opportunities for mastery are needed What requires reteaching or enhancement What areas of interests and feelings are in the different areas of the study How to set up flexible groups: Whole, individual, partner, or small group

21 THINKING ABOUT ON-GOING ASSESSMENT STUDENT DATA SOURCES 1.Journal entry 2.Short answer test 3.Open response test 4.Home learning 5.Notebook 6.Oral response 7.Portfolio entry 8.Exhibition 9.Culminating product 10.Question writing 11.Problem solving TEACHER DATA MECHANISMS 1.Anecdotal records 2.Observation by checklist 3.Skills checklist 4.Class discussion 5.Small group interaction 6.Teacher – student conference 7.Assessment stations 8.Exit cards 9.Problem posing 10.Performance tasks and rubrics

22 Yes/No Cards Using a 4x6 index card the student writes YES on one side and NO on the other. When a question is asked the students hold up YES or NO. 1.Ask the students if they know the following vocabulary words and what they mean. 2.Call out a word. If a student is holding a YES they may be called on to give the correct answer. 3.Remind them that if they don’t know the words it is OK because they will be learning them. 4.You can do the same thing with conceptual ideas, etc. YESYES NONO

23 Thumb It! Have students respond with the position of their thumb to get an assessment of what their current understanding of a topic being studied. Where I am now in my understanding of ______? Up Sideways Down I know a lot I know some I know very little

24 Exit Cards List 3 things you learned today 2 things you’d like to learn more about 1 question you still have

25 Exit Cards Explain the difference between an expression and an equation. Give some examples of each as part of your explanation.

26 Circle Vocabulary Creative Find a way to help us remember all this vocabulary! You can create a skit by becoming each term, and talking about who you are and how you relate to each other, draw pictures, make a collage, or any other way of which you can think. OR RoleAudience Format Topic DiameterRadius Twice as nice CircleTangent poemYou touch me! SecantChordvoic I extend you.


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