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Romeo and Juliet Act 3. Act III, Scene I - Summary  Benvolio is concerned they will not “scape a brawl”  Tybalt enters looking for Romeo  Tybalt and.

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Presentation on theme: "Romeo and Juliet Act 3. Act III, Scene I - Summary  Benvolio is concerned they will not “scape a brawl”  Tybalt enters looking for Romeo  Tybalt and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Romeo and Juliet Act 3

2 Act III, Scene I - Summary  Benvolio is concerned they will not “scape a brawl”  Tybalt enters looking for Romeo  Tybalt and Mercutio - two of the most headstrong and passionate members of each side of the feud - conflict will arise  Benvolio tries to avoid confrontation but Mercutio is deliberately provocative  Romeo appears and Tybalt insults him, hoping he will respond to the challenge  Romeo refuses because he is now related to Tybalt through his marriage to Juliet

3 Act III, Scene i - Summary  Mercutio, disgusted by Romeo’s reluctance, fights on Romeo’s behalf  To stop the battle, Romeo steps between them and Tybalt stabs Mercutio under Romeo’s arm  Mercutio’s wound is fatal and he dies cursing: “A plague o’ both your houses!”  Blinded by rage over Mercutio’s death, Romeo attacks Tybalt and kills him  Romeo is forced to flee a mob of citizens as the Prince, the heads of the two households, and their wives appear at the scene  After Benvolio gives an account of what has happened, the Prince banishes Romeo from Verona under the penalty of death and orders Lords Montague and Capulet to pay a heavy fine

4 Setting and Mood  This scene acts as a violent contrast to the euphoric mood and romance of the previous few scenes  The harsh, uncompromising daylight reality replaces the dark secrecy and moonlight declarations of the previous scenes  The searing heat, flaring tempers, and sudden violence of this scene contrast sharply with the romantic, peaceful previous night  The play reaches a dramatic crescendo as Romeo and Juliet’s private world clashes with the public feud

5 Romeo’s Refusal to Fight  Romeo appears, euphoric and unaware he’s been challenged to a duel – his mood separates him from the other characters in the scene  In response to Tybalt’s attempts to initiate a fight, Romeo tells Tybalt he loves “thee better than thou canst devise” – he will not fight as he is now a kinsman of Tybalt’s  In Romeo’s mind, he has shed his identity as a Montague and has become one with Juliet, his wife  However, Tybalt still sees Romeo as standing on the wrong side of a clear line that divides the families  Tybalt does not understand why Romeo will not respond to his challenge - traditional assertion of masculine nobility  Romeo and Juliet’s love removes them from the animosity that drives the feud

6 Romeo and Conflict  However, the love of Romeo and Juliet is flawed by Romeo acting out of anger rather than his love for Juliet  Ironically, Romeo’s refusal to duel with Tybalt brings about the very acceleration of violence he sought to prevent and Mercutio’s death  Romeo blames himself for Mercutio’s death because he placed his love for Juliet before consideration of his friend and regards himself as effeminate  Romeo thus attacks Tybalt to assuage his guilt  By doing so, he disregards any effect that this may have on Juliet  His action is impulsive and reckless, his rage overpowers his sensibility, and his tragic fortunes are sealed  By attacking Tybalt in a blind fury, he has become one with fiery Tybalt; one with the feud

7 Mercutio  The hot-headed Mercutio starts a quarrel the instant Tybalt requests a word with him, by responding, “make it a word and a blow.”  Mercutio’s characteristic wit turns bitter as he is incensed at what he sees as Romeo’s cowardice: ‘calm, dishonourable, vile submission’  As he dies he curses both Montagues and Capulets, who have been the direct cause of his death: “A plague on both your houses” (3 times)  In shocked disbelief, he asks Romeo “Why the devil / came you between us? I was hurt under your arm”  Mercutio’s death is the catalyst for the tragic turn the play takes from this point onward

8 Fate  Tybalt’s death brings Romeo a moment of clarity - he realises that he is the helpless victim of fate: “O, I am fortune’s fool!”  He is struck by a sense of anger, injustice, and futility, of being ‘unlucky’ and ‘cursed’ by bad fortune  Contrast this with Mercutio’s response to his own fate – he blames the people of the houses of Montague and Capulet, and gives no blame to any larger force  The speed with which Mercutio and Tybalt’s deaths occur, together with Romeo’s marriage and subsequent banishment, all contribute to a sense of inevitability—that a chain of events has been set in motion over which the protagonists have no control  Mercutio’s dying curse upon the houses resonates as the voice of fate itself

9 Conflict  The sudden, extreme violence of this scene serves as a reminder that, for all the love, beauty and romance of the play, this love story takes place against a backdrop of honour, pride, revenge and other masculine notions  The beauty, purity and fragility of Romeo and Juliet’s love stands little chance against this world of violence and brutality

10 Banishment and Fate  The Prince listens to the true story of what happened, and declares that Romeo’s behaviour was understandable, but nevertheless must be punished by banishment from Verona – forever  ‘..when he is found, that hour is his last’  Romeo and Juliet’s love is now not only censured and forbidden by their families, it is also thwarted and forbidden by the ruler of Verona  Their relationship puts Romeo in danger of violent reprisal from both Juliet’s kinsmen AND the state

11 The future?  From an atmosphere of hope at the very end of Act II, we have moved (in one scene) to a situation of darkest despair  It is now very difficult for Romeo, and the audience, to see a hopeful future for the young lovers

12 Act III, Scene ii - Summary  Juliet is impatient for night so that she can be with Romeo  Nurse is distraught and unable to make clear who is dead  Juliet thinks Romeo has killed himself ‘Hath Romeo slain himself?’ and resolves she will also kill herself  Nurse then reveals Tybalt is dead and Juliet fears both Tybalt AND Romeo are dead  When the truth is at last revealed Juliet makes ONE speech cursing nature that it should put ‘the spirit of a fiend’ in Romeo’s ‘sweet flesh’  BUT when Nurse joins her Juliet reverts to her loyalty  Nurse explains Romeo is hiding at Friar Lawrence’s cell and Juliet sends the Nurse with a ring, bidding Romeo to come and “take his last farewell.”

13 Tension and Mood  Setting is peaceful (the Capulet orchard)  Contrasts to the conflict in the previous scene  Juliet looks forward to the “amorous rites” of her marriage  Her impatience echoes her excitement in Act II, Scene 5, when she had to wait for news of the wedding arrangements  Contrast –we know that her happy hopes will not be fulfilled  Sense of impending doom hangs in the atmosphere as she is unaware of the tragedy which awaits her

14 Dark Imagery  Darkness for the lovers is a time of safety  Juliet beckons the darkness because it has been a sanctuary for the couple, “if love be blind, / It best agrees with night.”  The lovers have forged their love at night as they: –met –agreed to marry –consummate their marriage –die together under the cover of night  Their affinity for the darkness illustrates their separation from the temporal, feuding world

15 Light Imagery  Although external light (the “garish sun”) has become their enemy, the lovers provide light for each other  Juliet’s eyes were like the stars, she “doth teach the torches to burn bright!,” and is Romeo’s “Juliet is the sun”  Here, Romeo brings “day in night”  Juliet begs fate to “cut Romeo out in little stars”  These stars represent both the timeless quality of the couple’s love and their fate as “star-cross’d lovers” who will only truly be united in death

16 Fate  Although Juliet is unaware of the tragic news that awaits her, her soliloquy contains tragic images suggesting the dark future – she states of Romeo: “if he should die”  Even when Juliet understands that Romeo is not dead, his banishment is equivalent to death in her eyes: “I’ll to my wedding bed / And death, not Romeo, take my maidenhead.”  The association between Juliet and death as her bridegroom pairs the themes of love and death  This emphasises that her young life is constantly overshadowed by death

17 Love/ Death  Shakespeare’s linking of ‘love’ and ‘death’ continues with Juliet’s first reaction being that Romeo MUST have killed himself, and  Her own willingness to kill herself  This theme of the intensity of extreme love leading to a death impulse will be echoed in the upcoming scene, and Romeo’s reaction to his banishment

18 Juliet and Loyalty  Juliet feels conflicted because her love for Romeo clashes with her love and sense of duty to Tybalt  She expresses her conflicting emotions for Romeo using oxymorons: “Beautiful tyrant, fiend angelical.”  She is angry, but swiftly restores her loyal feelings  Juliet’s loyalty is firmly grounded in her love of Romeo and no longer for family - she is now a wife first and a daughter and cousin second  She believes that Romeo’s banishment is worse than the slaying of ‘ten thousand Tybalts’  She laments that she will die a ‘maiden-widow’ – there is no other love for her  She offers her ring to give to Romeo as a token of her love, loyalty and forgiveness

19 Juliet and Nurse  The Nurse’s inability to comprehend the intensity of Juliet’s love for Romeo causes a a change in their relationship  Juliet is emerging as a young woman with her own opinions and emotions  She no longer relies on Nurse for maternal guidance  The rift between the Nurse and Juliet foreshadows the final split in their relationship which occurs in Act III, Scene v when the Nurse betrays Juliet by advising her to forget Romeo and marry Paris

20 Conflict  The blissful love of Act II has completely disappeared in the tension of Act 3  The conflict has caused this deterioration  It is now extremely unlikely that their alliance will turn such extreme ‘rancour’ to ‘pure love’

21 Act III, Scene iii - Summary  In Friar Lawrence’s cell, Romeo is overcome with grief at his banishment –he will live, but without Juliet  In a state of frenzied grief, he falls on the floor and cannot be comforted: “with his own tears made drunk.”  The Nurse arrives, with news of Juliet’s distress, but Romeo assumes Juliet will not want him now  Once again, he offers to rid himself of his name, this time by stabbing himself.. ‘In what vile part of this anatomy Doth my name lodge? Tell me, that I may sack The hateful mansion’  The Friar advises Romeo to go to Juliet, then flee to Mantua  He promises to announce Romeo and Juliet’s marriage and gain a pardon for Romeo to return safely

22 Structure  This scene parallels the previous scene where Juliet reacted to the news of Romeo’s banishment with forceful emotion  Romeo responds to his banishment with wailing hysteria and a failed suicide attempt  Their reactions show the similar feelings of Romeo and Juliet – the structure of the play consistently links their actions  Juliet lamented her fate, her marriage, and her life with maturity, while Romeo falls to the floor grappling for a dagger with which to end his suffering

23 Romeo - Impusive  Reacts in usual fashion - extreme passion, and lack of moderation  Willing to kill himself – seeking oblivion rather than live without Juliet  We might question this believing it was also caused by Romeo’s impulsive behavior

24 Fate  Romeo realises he cannot escape the responsibilities of family – he is fated by his name  He angrily blames his name and wishes to cut from his body: ‘Had I it written, I would tear the word’  He distinguishes himself from his identity as a Montague: “that name’s cursed hand / Murdered her kinsman”, but it seems his family name will lead to his death  The Friar links Romeo and Juliet’s marriage with ill fate when he says that Romeo is “wedded to calamity”  Throughout the play, Romeo and Juliet are described as being wedded to death which foreshadows the play’s conclusion  It suggests that fate is an omnipotent, controlling power that draws the characters toward their doom

25 Youth and Age  Conflict between the older and younger generations  The Friar chastises Romeo and reminds him of his good fortune that the Prince has given a “gentler judgment” of exile rather than death  Romeo’s blind passion is far removed from calm reasoning of Friar  As in previous and subsequent scenes, the older generation’s failure to comprehend the depth of Romeo and Juliet’s passion isolates the lovers from sources of wisdom that might otherwise prevent their tragic fates

26 Act III, Scene iv - Summary  Late on Monday evening, Capulet and Paris discuss Juliet’s grief over Tybalt’s  This has prevented Paris from continuing his courtship of Juliet  Suddenly, as Paris prepares to leave, Capulet offers him Juliet’s hand in marriage  He tells Paris that Juliet will obey his wishes and marry Paris on Thursday: “I think she will be ruled in all respects by me” (No, she won’t)  Paris eagerly agrees and Lady Capulet is sent to convey the news to Juliet

27 Fate/ Tension  Juliet’s father suddenly decides that she should marry Paris as soon as possible - rash plans  Repeated references to days and times creates a sense of urgency as events rush towards their tragic conclusion  He reasons that since it is Monday night, Wednesday would be too soon due to Tybalt’s death; therefore, Thursday would appropriate  It seems that Juliet’s fate is inescapable  BUT by the Tuesday (following) morning, Juliet will have spent the night with Romeo, and consummated their marriage  Juliet CANNOT then marry another man – this would be blasphemous and a ‘mortal sin’

28 Lord Capulet  Capulet’s belief that Juliet will obey his will contrasts sharply with his manner previously  The decision reflects his impetuous nature but it may have political reasons as he knows Paris is related to the Prince who may be useful if the feud escalates  His language suggests a shift from parental concern to material/ social status  His belief in his daughter’s compliance are ironic because Juliet has already defied her father  The older generation is out of touch as Juliet is upstairs consummating her marriage

29 Marriage  Capulet, like his wife, is anxious to have his daughter marry successfully  He addresses Paris using a series of titles suggesting his social superiority, “Sir Paris,” “noble earl,” and “My lord.”  Paris is a relative of the Prince and would bring Capulet’s family increased wealth and status  Capulet would never be able to understand, let alone agree to, a marriage for Juliet based solely on love  Juliet is powerless in this situation – her thoughts and wishes are not taken into consideration at all – making Capulet’s earlier declarations of regard for her seem insincere and meaningless  She is a political and financial asset to him, and one that he feels free to use for his own ends..

30 Act III, Scene v - Summary  At dawn on Tuesday morning, Romeo and Juliet declare their love before Romeo leaves for Mantua  Juliet tries to resist the coming day that brings their separation by pretending that it is still night  Romeo is willing to throw caution to the winds and stay with her: ‘Let me be ta’en, let me be put to death/I am content, so thou wilt have it so.’  Juliet is more pragmatic and insists that he leaves:‘ O, now be gone! More light and light it grows.’  The threat of death forces the lovers to part

31 Act III, Scene v - Summary  Lady Capulet tells Juliet that she is to marry Paris  Juliet is stunned and tells her mother that she cannot be married in such haste  Her father enters expecting to find Juliet excited  When she expresses opposition, he is enraged and demands Juliet obey his “decree”  The Nurse tries to defend Juliet, but Capulet threatens to disown his daughter  The scene ends with the Nurse advising Juliet to obey her father  Juliet resolves to seek the advice of Friar Lawrence

32 Light/Dark  Dawn divides Romeo and Juliet, this time, for good  As the sun’s rays “lace the severing clouds,” Juliet wishes the lark were the nightingale  Juliet tries to deny the arrival of the coming day to prolong her time with Romeo  As in previous scenes, Romeo and Juliet’s love flourishes in the dark, but daylight brings separation and ill fortune: Juliet says reluctantly, “window, let day in, and let life out.”

33 Fate and Foreshadowing  As Romeo descends the balcony, Juliet experiences a frightening vision of Romeo “as one dead in the bottom of a tomb.”  This prophetic image will prove true in the final scene when Juliet awakens to find Romeo dead on the floor  Equally Romeo states: “Dry sorrow drinks our blood’  Images of love and death intertwine, infecting the joy of their wedding night with the foreshadowing of their coming deaths

34 Lady Capulet and the Feud  Lady Capulet plans to avenge Tybalt’s death by poisoning Romeo  Ironic as she anticipates the method he finally chooses to take his own life  Although Romeo drinks the poison, it is the hatred, driven in part by Lady Capulet that gives him cause  Her venomous comment at Juliet’s refusal to marry Paris “I would the fool were married to her grave.” anticipates the lovers’ tragic reunion in death  It is as if Lady Capulet, by her single-minded focus on the feud condemns them to their fates

35 Capulet  When Capulet refused to consent to his daughter’s marriage unless she was willing, he seemed concerned for Juliet’s welfare “My will to her consent is but a part”  Such parental concern evaporates into authoritarian ranting as Capulet calls Juliet “baggage”, degrading her to a possession  He threatens Juliet with violence and disinheritance if she disobeys him, “hang! Beg! Starve! Die in the streets! / For by my soul I’ll ne’er acknowledge thee.”  His sudden transformation illustrates his tendency toward impulsive, cruel, and reckless behavior  These tendencies may have contributed to the origins of the feud

36 Parental Love  Juliet’s interaction with both her mother and her father confirms the failure of parental love  Their sole concern is with a socially acceptable marriage that will improve the wealth and status of the Capulet family rather than Juliet’s happiness

37 Juliet’s Strength  Juliet handles herself with striking maturity  No longer the dutiful teenage daughter of the Capulets, she is a young woman, a bride, a wife  Her answers to her mother are skillfully truthful yet deceptive and filled with double-meanings  In response to her mother’s desire to have Romeo killed, Juliet remarks that she “never shall be satisfied / With Romeo, till I behold him - dead - is my poor heart….”  When told she will marry Paris she snaps back immediately ‘He shall not make me there a joyful bride!’  Her father’s rage places her in a position where she has nothing to lose which encourages her defiance  Juliet will not give in

38 The Nurse and Juliet  The Nurse, more of a mother figure to Juliet than her biological mother, fails Juliet at this critical moment  To comfort Juliet in her desperation, she offers an easy solution - marry Paris and forget the “dishclout” Romeo  This betrays Juliet’s trust and indicates the Nurse’s inability to understand the moral, emotional or religious connotations of Juliet’s marriage  The Nurse regards love as a temporary, physical relationship, and she sees Juliet’s marriage to Paris in entirely practical and economic terms  Juliet severs herself from the Nurse (an emotionally charged act, highly symbolic of leaving childhood behind) declaring: “Go, counsellor!/Thou and my bosom henceforth shall be twain”

39 Juliet Abandoned  Appeals to the heavens: ‘Is there no pity sitting in the clouds..’  Appeals to her mother: ‘O sweet my mother, cast me not away!’  Appeals to the Nurse: ‘O Nurse, how shall this be prevented?’  Everyone has abandoned her  At the end of Act 3, she is as much ‘banished’ as Romeo

40 Hope?  She flees to the Friar as a source of aid and counsel  Her isolation is nearly complete, and yet she is calm and resolute, as she determines to die rather than enter into a bigamous marriage with Paris: “If all else fail, myself have power to die.”  Like Romeo, she realises that choosing to live, or not live, can represent the only means of asserting authority over the self  She has defied her father, but knows she stands little chance of success in this male-dominated world

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