Presentation on theme: "THE PHYSIOLOGY OF TRAINING THE DISTANCE RUNNER Dr. Joe Vigil."— Presentation transcript:
THE PHYSIOLOGY OF TRAINING THE DISTANCE RUNNER Dr. Joe Vigil
THE BIOLOGIC LAW OF TRAINING The structure and performance capability of an organ/organ system is determined by the following: –Its genetic constitution –The quality and quantity of work carried out The greater the demand/stress placed on an organ within its physiological limits, the more intensely it adapts and the more efficient it becomes.
Physiological Testing Objectives: Provide baseline information Provide markers for effectiveness of training Detect areas of strength/weakness Optimize performance
Training Goals Major Physiological Targets Improve body’s ability to transport blood and oxygen Increase ability of specific muscle groups to effectively use available oxygen Shift blood lactate threshold to higher proportion of maximum speed/power Increase aerobic capacity Improve speed Improve economy
Variables of Endurance Performance 1)Maximal Oxygen Uptake (VO2 max) 2)Economy of Motion 3)Lactate Threshold 4)Fractional Utilization of VO2 max (%VO2 max) 5)Fuel Supply
Training Intensities: Lactate Threshold and Training Zones 1. Recovery Intensity: very low, 2-3 mmol/L below LT, 30-5- bpm below LT Duration: 30-45 min Objective: To promote recovery following high intensity intervals or glycogen- depleting overdistance workouts. Maintenance of cardiovascular adaptations and muscle-skeletal system.
Training Intensities: Lactate Threshold and Training Zones 2. Endurance Intensity: moderate, 1-2 mmol/L below LT, 10-30 bpm below LT Duration: 30 min- 3hrs Objective: Develop peripheral training adaptations: increase fat metabolism, increase number of aerobic enzymes, increase size and number of mitochondria, increase capillarization
Training Intensities: Lactate Threshold and Training Zones 3. Lactate Threshold Intensity: moderate, TEMPO just below LT, or at LT + 5bpm Duration: TEMPO 20-60 min continuous or LT intervals 5-15 min with equal or one half recovery Objective: Increase LT (%VO2 max at LT) and maximal aerobic capacity
Training Intensities: Lactate Threshold and Training Zones 4. VO2 max Intervals Intensity: high, 1-2 mmol/L, above LT, HR associated with 95% VO2max Duration: 3-5 min intervals with equal amount of rest Objective: Develop central training adaptations: Increase stroke volume, increase maximal aerobic capacity and lactate tolerance (buffering capacity)
Training Intensities: Lactate Threshold and Training Zones 5. Intensive Repetitions Intensity: very high, 2-6 mmol/L above LT Duration: SHORT 30-60 sec with complete recovery. LONG 1-2 min with complete recovery Objective: Increase anaerobic capacity and buffering capacity
Method of Balke (VO2max) A.Walk/Run for 15 min B.Convert to meters 1 mile + 1609 meters C.Divide by 15 to calculate meters/min D.The first 150 meters/min = 33.3 ml VO2 E.For every meter under 150, multiply by.178 and subtract from 33.3 ml VO2 F.For every meter over 150, multiply by.178 and add to 33.3 ml
The ABC’s of Elite Distance Runners once Aerobic Base has been achieved I.Improvement in performance occurs in trained runners when intensity of training is increased II.Improvement in Cardiorespiratory fitness occurs when training intensities correspond to 90-100% of VO2 max velocity III.Improvement in endurance performance occurs when the intensity in a steady state run does not exceed 4mM lactate concentration, which corresponds to approximately 80-90% VO2 velocity
Major Mechanisms of Optimal Distance Running Performance Ability to produce high muscle force output at a high velocity for a prolonged period of time 1.Muscle Fiber Recruitment: Increase number of muscle fibers contracting simultaneously. Increase number of actin/myosin filament in each muscle fiber
Major Mechanisms of Optimal Distance Running Performance 2.Muscle Fiber Recruitment Rate: Increase rate of repetitive activation of muscle fibers 3.Mitochondrial Density: Increase number and size of mitochondria around all muscle fibers