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FAA/Asphalt Institute Airport Pavement Workshop October 18-20, 2011 Newport Beach, California The Benefit of Runway Grooving Hector Daiutolo 1.

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Presentation on theme: "FAA/Asphalt Institute Airport Pavement Workshop October 18-20, 2011 Newport Beach, California The Benefit of Runway Grooving Hector Daiutolo 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 FAA/Asphalt Institute Airport Pavement Workshop October 18-20, 2011 Newport Beach, California The Benefit of Runway Grooving Hector Daiutolo 1

2 Problem: The Water Covered Runway 2

3 Runway Grooving Misconceptions Have Developed Relative to Its Purpose During Its More Than 40 Years of Application. Misconceptions Have Developed Relative to Its Purpose During Its More Than 40 Years of Application. 3

4 Prudent to Stress Reasons for Which It Is Not Used Prudent to Stress Reasons for Which It Is Not Used Runway Grooving 4

5 Not Used to Provide Drainage of Water from the Pavement Surface Not Used to Provide Drainage of Water from the Pavement Surface 5

6 Drainage Provided by the Transverse Slope of the Pavement Surface Provided by the Transverse Slope of the Pavement Surface Grooves Are Cut in the Runway Surface Transversely to the Pavement Centerline and Make a Secondary Contribution to Drainage. Grooves Are Cut in the Runway Surface Transversely to the Pavement Centerline and Make a Secondary Contribution to Drainage. 6

7 Runway Grooving Not Used to Provide an Increase in the Friction Capability of the Pavement Surface Not Used to Provide an Increase in the Friction Capability of the Pavement Surface 7

8 Friction Friction Capability of the Pavement Surface Provided by the Quality of the Microtexture - Macrotexture Combination Friction Capability of the Pavement Surface Provided by the Quality of the Microtexture - Macrotexture Combination 8

9 Runway Grooving Provides Forced Water Escape from the Pavement Surface under Aircraft Tires Traveling at High Speed Provides Forced Water Escape from the Pavement Surface under Aircraft Tires Traveling at High Speed 9

10 Runway Grooving Does Not Eliminate Hydroplaning Does Not Eliminate Hydroplaning Reduces Hydroplaning to a Manageable Level Reduces Hydroplaning to a Manageable Level A Higher Degree of Contact is Maintained Between Aircraft Tires and the Pavement Surface under the Condition of Standing Water. A Higher Degree of Contact is Maintained Between Aircraft Tires and the Pavement Surface under the Condition of Standing Water. 10

11 Runway Grooving Enables Pavement Surface Microtexture - Macrotexture Combination to Provide Sufficient Braking and Directional Control to Aircraft Enables Pavement Surface Microtexture - Macrotexture Combination to Provide Sufficient Braking and Directional Control to Aircraft Slight to Significant as Speed of Aircraft or Water Depth on Pavement is Reduced Slight to Significant as Speed of Aircraft or Water Depth on Pavement is Reduced 11

12 Runway Grooving Reduces Dynamic Hydroplaning (Standing Water) Reduces Dynamic Hydroplaning (Standing Water) Reduces Viscous Hydroplaning (Wet Pavement with Little to No Standing Water) Reduces Viscous Hydroplaning (Wet Pavement with Little to No Standing Water) 12

13 Rule of Thumb for Water Covered Runways Servicing Aircraft Operations Transverse Slope Provides Drainage. Transverse Slope Provides Drainage. Texture of Pavement Provides Friction. Texture of Pavement Provides Friction. Grooving Enables Aircraft Tires to Contact the Pavement. Grooving Enables Aircraft Tires to Contact the Pavement. 13

14 Runway Grooving In the Presence of Water, Totally Worn Aircraft Tires Experience Better Braking on a Grooved Pavement than Newly Treaded Tires on a Nongrooved Pavement. In the Presence of Water, Totally Worn Aircraft Tires Experience Better Braking on a Grooved Pavement than Newly Treaded Tires on a Nongrooved Pavement. 14

15 Porous Friction Course Substitutes for Runway Grooving Provides Drainage of Water from the Pavement Surface (Primary) Provides Drainage of Water from the Pavement Surface (Primary) Provides Forced Water Escape from the Pavement Surface under Aircraft Tires Traveling at High Speed Similar to Grooving (Secondary) Provides Forced Water Escape from the Pavement Surface under Aircraft Tires Traveling at High Speed Similar to Grooving (Secondary) Application Limited Relative to Density of Aircraft Operations Application Limited Relative to Density of Aircraft Operations 15

16 Not Substitutes for Runway Grooving Tire Tread (Demonstrated in Full Scale Tests) Tire Tread (Demonstrated in Full Scale Tests) Coarse Pavement Surface Macrotexture (Demonstrated to a Limited Degree in Full Scale Tests) Coarse Pavement Surface Macrotexture (Demonstrated to a Limited Degree in Full Scale Tests) 16

17 FAA Full Scale Test Program Braking/Hydroplaning 1975 to to Full Scale Tests 600 Full Scale Tests Dynamic Test Track Dynamic Test Track Asphalt and Portland Cement Concrete Asphalt and Portland Cement Concrete Variety of Pavement Surface Treatments Variety of Pavement Surface Treatments Wet to Flooded Conditions Wet to Flooded Conditions Speeds of 30 to 150 Knots Speeds of 30 to 150 Knots 17

18 FAA Full Scale Test Program Braking/Hydroplaning Aircraft Tire, 49 by 17, 26 ply, type VII (Boeing 727 and 747) Aircraft Tire, 49 by 17, 26 ply, type VII (Boeing 727 and 747) Tire Pressure, 140 psi Tire Pressure, 140 psi Wheel Load, 35,000 lbs Wheel Load, 35,000 lbs Maximum Braking Data Base Maximum Braking Data Base Test Facility, NAEC (Navy), Lakehurst, New Jersey Test Facility, NAEC (Navy), Lakehurst, New Jersey 18

19 FAA Full Scale Test Program Braking/Hydroplaning Water Depth Conditions on Pavement Wet 0.00 in. Standing Water Wet 0.00 in. Standing Water Puddled 0.10 in. Standing Water Puddled 0.10 in. Standing Water Flooded 0.25 in. Standing Water Flooded 0.25 in. Standing Water 19

20 Launch End of Test Track 20

21 Launch End of Test Track 21

22 Dynamometer with Tire-Wheel Assembly 22

23 New and Worn Tire Tread 23

24 Saw Cutting Grooves in the Test Pavement 24

25 Test Pavement at the Recovery End of the Test Track 25

26 1/4 x 1/4 in. Grooves Spaced at 1 1/4, 2, and 3 ins. 26

27 1/8 x 1/8 in. Grooves Spaced at 1/2 in. and Porous Friction Course 27

28 Experimental Percussive Grooves at 3 in. Spacing 28

29 Grooved Pavement FAA Standard 1/4 x 1/4 Saw-Cut Grooves Spaced at 1½ inches FAA Standard 1/4 x 1/4 Saw-Cut Grooves Spaced at 1½ inches Represented by Curve Fits between Data Points for 1¼ inch and 2 inch Spacing Represented by Curve Fits between Data Points for 1¼ inch and 2 inch Spacing 29

30 Braking on a Wet Asphalt Pavement 30

31 Braking on a Puddled Asphalt Pavement 31

32 Braking on Flooded Asphalt Pavement 32

33 Braking on a Wet Asphalt Pavement 33

34 Braking on an Asphalt Pavement Under a Heavy Downpour 34

35 Braking on an Asphalt Pavement Under a Heavy Downpour (Flooded) 35

36 Essentials of an Aircraft Braking/Hydroplaning Test System Full Scale Full Scale High Speed High Speed Standing Water Standing Water Uniformity of Water Depths Uniformity of Water Depths Close Control of Variables Close Control of Variables 36

37 Aircraft Braking/Hydroplaning Test System Scenarios Full Scale Tire-Wheel Assembly on a Dynamic Test Track (Best Control of Variables) Full Scale Tire-Wheel Assembly on a Dynamic Test Track (Best Control of Variables) Aircraft on a Runway Aircraft on a Runway 37

38 FAA Standard and Proposed Saw-Cut Groove Patterns Standard Proposed 38

39 FAA Standard Groove Pattern vs. High Macrotexture - New Tire on a Puddled Portland Cement Concrete Pavement 39

40 Landing of a Jet Transport Aircraft on a Stone Matrix Asphalt (SMA) Runway under Rainfall Conditions 40

41 Takeoff of a Jet Transport Aircraft on a Stone Matrix Asphalt (SMA) Runway under Rainfall Conditions 41

42 FAA Standard Groove Pattern vs. High Macrotexture - New Tire on a Puddled Portland Cement Concrete Pavement 42

43 Relationship between Results on the Test Track and Performance of the Aircraft on a Runway 43

44 Braking on a Wet Asphalt Pavement 44

45 Braking on a Wet Asphalt Pavement 45

46 Braking on Wet Porous Friction Course 46

47 Dynamic Test Track Data Can Be Used to Simulate Tire-Pavement Interaction During the Landing and Takeoff of a Jet Transport Aircraft with Worn Tires on a Runway under Rainfall Conditions. 47

48 Inference Drawn from Simulation on Asphalt Pavement Runway Grooving Offers the Potential to Double The Magnitude of Tire-Pavement Interaction for Jet Transport Aircraft Operating on Water Covered Runways. Runway Grooving Offers the Potential to Double The Magnitude of Tire-Pavement Interaction for Jet Transport Aircraft Operating on Water Covered Runways. 48

49 Landing 49

50 Fast Touchdown at 150 Knots 50

51 Touchdown at 130 Knots 51

52 Braking at 110 Knots 52

53 Braking at 90 Knots 53

54 Braking at 70 Knots, Approaching High Speed Turnoff 54

55 Takeoff 55

56 Takeoff Roll at 70 Knots 56

57 Takeoff Roll at 90 Knots 57

58 Takeoff Roll at 110 Knots 58

59 Decision Point at 130 Knots Takeoff or Abort Decision Point at 130 Knots Takeoff or Abort 59

60 Dynamic Test Track Data Could Be Used to Recover Lost Capacity More Rapidly at Many Airports Following Periods of Rainfall. 60

61 Land and Hold Short Operations (LAHSO) Can Be Conducted at More Than 200 Airports throughout the United States LAHSO Can Be Conducted in Way of Active Intersecting Runways and Taxiways. LAHSO Can Be Conducted in Way of Active Intersecting Runways and Taxiways. Runways Must Be Dry. Runways Must Be Dry. Airlines/Pilots Can Reject LAHSO Requests. Airlines/Pilots Can Reject LAHSO Requests. Test Track Data Supports LAHSO-Wet. Test Track Data Supports LAHSO-Wet. Runways Are To Be Grooved, Have Good Texture and No Standing Water. Runways Are To Be Grooved, Have Good Texture and No Standing Water. LAHSO-Wet Enables Lost Airport Capacity To Be Recovered More Rapidly Following Periods of Rainfall. Costly Delays Could Be Reduced. LAHSO-Wet Enables Lost Airport Capacity To Be Recovered More Rapidly Following Periods of Rainfall. Costly Delays Could Be Reduced. 61

62 Two Successful Innovative Demonstrations of LAHSO-Wet Conducted in the 1980’s Boston Logan International Airport (BOS) Boston Logan International Airport (BOS) Significant Recovery of Lost Capacity Was Experienced at BOS. Significant Recovery of Lost Capacity Was Experienced at BOS. Miami International Airport (MIA) Miami International Airport (MIA) One Hour Delays, Every Day, Lasting Five Hours per Day Were Averted at MIA. One Hour Delays, Every Day, Lasting Five Hours per Day Were Averted at MIA. 62

63 Miami International Airport (MIA) 63

64 Braking on a Wet Asphalt Pavement Upper Curve Supports LAHSO-Wet 64

65 Summary 65

66 FAA Full Scale Test Program Braking/Hydroplaning Technical Advances Achieved Maximum Braking Data Base Maximum Braking Data Base Asphalt as well as Portland Cement Asphalt as well as Portland Cement Porous Friction Course as well as Grooving Porous Friction Course as well as Grooving Benefit of Grooving versus Tire Tread Benefit of Grooving versus Tire Tread Uniformly Puddled Condition Uniformly Puddled Condition Groove Spacing up to 4 inches Groove Spacing up to 4 inches Speeds up to 150 Knots Speeds up to 150 Knots 66

67 FAA Full Scale Test Program Braking/Hydroplaning Products of the Effort Supports Current FAA Grooving Standards. Supports Current FAA Grooving Standards. Spacing of 1/4 x 1/4 in. Saw-Cut Grooves Extended from 1¼ ins. to 1½ ins. Spacing of 1/4 x 1/4 in. Saw-Cut Grooves Extended from 1¼ ins. to 1½ ins. Grooving Costs Reduced by an Estimated 7%. Grooving Costs Reduced by an Estimated 7%. More Significant Cost Savings Possible with Slightly Greater Increases in Spacing. More Significant Cost Savings Possible with Slightly Greater Increases in Spacing. 67

68 FAA Full Scale Test Program Braking/Hydroplaning Products of the Effort (Continued ) Data Base Can Be Useful to Foreign Aviation Authorities in Supporting the Grooving of Runways in their Respective Countries. Data Base Can Be Useful to Foreign Aviation Authorities in Supporting the Grooving of Runways in their Respective Countries. Data Base Can Support the Establishment of International Guidelines for the Grooving of Runways. Data Base Can Support the Establishment of International Guidelines for the Grooving of Runways. 68

69 FAA Full Scale Test Program Braking/Hydroplaning Products of the Effort (Continued ) Data Base Supports Landing and Hold Short Operations (LAHSO) on Grooved Runways in the Presence of Intersecting Runways or Taxiways under Wet Pavement Conditions Potentially Reducing Costly Delays. Data Base Supports Landing and Hold Short Operations (LAHSO) on Grooved Runways in the Presence of Intersecting Runways or Taxiways under Wet Pavement Conditions Potentially Reducing Costly Delays. 69

70 FAA Full Scale Test Program Braking/Hydroplaning DOT/FAA Technical Reports Available for Download from NAPTF Website DOT/FAA Technical Reports Available for Download from NAPTF Website Located under “Downloads”, “Safety” Located under “Downloads”, “Safety” 70

71 Dynamic Test Track Naval Air Engineering Center (NAEC) Naval Air Engineering Center (NAEC) Lakehurst, New Jersey Lakehurst, New Jersey High Speed Films of Tests Follow: High Speed Films of Tests Follow: 71

72 72


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