2Sightline, LC (Airport Marking Consultants) is the author of the Airfield Marking Handbook.The project was administered by theInnovative Pavement Research Foundationunder a Cooperative Research Agreementwith the Federal Aviation Administration
3NAVAIDS “broken”? Signs If a sign is unlit or broken, it gets replaced.LightsIf a taxiway light is malfunctioning, it gets fixed.MarkingsBut how do you know when the markings are“broken”?
4Marking Standards Describes WHAT the markings are, FAA AC 150/5340-1JUSAF ETL 04-2USN UFGSUSACE TMDescribes WHAT the markings are,WHEN you’re supposed to use themand WHERE they belong.
6Visibility of Markings Contrast of markings (black border)“The contrast of markings on light colored pavements can be increased by outlining them with a black border at least 6-inches in width.”AC 150/5340-1H, dated 8/31/99 (FAA)6
7Visibility of Markings Use of glass beads:“Markings that cannot be seen by pilots and others operating on marked surfaces are useless.”AC 150/5340-1H, dated 8/31/99 (FAA)
8Visibility of Markings Markings should be as visible during darkness as they are in the daylight.8
9Visibility of Markings Quality ApplicationAll the efforts to increase visibility with black borders, glass beads and new designs are futile if markings are not applied well.
10Objectives of the handbook What can be done to increase the life-cycleof airfield markings?2. What constitutes a “quality” marking?3. When is a marking functional and whenis it “unsafe”?4. What is a good application v. a poor one?
11Roundtable Discussion 30 industry participants met in Kansas City onJune 15, 2006:airport engineering consultants,FAA staff,airport management,maintenance personnel,striping contractors,material manufacturers, andmilitary airport managers
12Top FIVE Industry Issues Application ProceduresSurface PreparationPavement Marking RemovalMaterial SelectionProject Specifications
14Project Specifications Address the standard specifications and guidance literature, emphasizing the need to customize specifications to fit the project.When is maintenance necessary?Develop measured and detailed techniques for quality assurance.Create a tool kit for inspection of marking application.
15Marking Maintenance Who’s watching? Markings degrade slowly due to: traffic (worn marking)sunlight (UV deterioration)rain (paint absorbs water, expands and contracts)snowplows, sweeperscontaminants (oils, rust deposits, algae, rubber)loss of retro-reflectivity
16Marking Maintenance Prevent degradation due to: Poor Application Practices16
21Project Specifications Evaluate actual site conditions, specify remediation.Evaluate condition of pavement under markings.Evaluate surface preparation methods and quantities.Determine amount, type, and degree of marking removal.Select materials appropriate to the airport environment.Specify materials arrive in sealed containers.Verify material types and quantities.
22Material SelectionObserve the different marking materials already approved for use on airports, noting the advantages and disadvantages of each.Develop criteria for deciding the best materials suited for a project based on pavement surfaces, existing markings, airport weather conditions, and airport operations.Review current material testing procedures.
23Material Selection coatings. Materials are selected based on the airport environment.Select materials suited for the pavement or existingcoatings.Glass beads are selected appropriate to the type andthickness of coating specified as well as airport needs.Temporary marking materials are selected for“removability”.Materials are sampled directly from equipment guns.
24Surface PreparationCreate an effective definition of surface preparation.Develop ways of determining when surface preparation is necessary, if not always.What equipment is best suited to do the work?
25Surface Preparation Definition: Surface preparation is the cleaning of anything that would prevent the bond of the new coating to eitherthe pavement or existing coatings.
26“Seventy-five percent of all material failures are attributable to deficient surface preparation and/or application. The unit cost of repair is normally two and one half times higher than the original material application unit cost and frequently results in lower quality due to adverse application conditions. This analysis does not include the potentially staggering cost of down-time and loss of facility production.”S. G. Pinney & Associates
27Surface Preparation Loose and poorly bonded paint. Perform surface preparation before painting to remove:Loose and poorly bonded paint.Curing compound on new concrete.Algae.Rust discoloration.Oily substances including jet blast residue.Heavy rubber build up.Waterblasting is best method for surface preparation.Sweep, blow with air, or rinse with water after preparation.Specify surface preparation as a separate bid item.
28Surface Preparation Adequate surface preparation will: Prolong the life of the markings.Save valuable airport funds.Prevent paint build-up/pavement damage.Reduce FOD.
29Pavement Marking Removal Define paint removal.Define different types of removal encountered.Define the degrees of removal required.Describe type(s) of equipment and effectivenesson varying pavement conditions, thickness of and types of existing coatings.Define pavement damage.
30Pavement Marking Removal Definition:Pavement marking removal is themechanical eradication of markingsfrom the pavement to a specified degree.There are several reasons airports removemarkings, and each situation requiresdifferent degrees (or percentages) oferadication.
31Pavement Marking Removal Degree of removal is defined in specifications.Markings are removed, not “blacked” out or obscured.Equipment is specified based on conditions.Test strips indicate capability of equipment and operator.Shotblasting is effective on non-grooved surfaces.Waterblasting is effective on most surfaces.The scar is thoroughly cleaned before applying markings.Waste water and debris are contained, characterized,and properly disposed of.
32Pavement Marking Removal All marking removal methods will leave a scar.Handbook definition:Scarring is removal of the texture with some exposed aggregate.
34Pavement Marking Removal Pavement damage can be subjective.Handbook definition:Damage occurs when more than 25 percent of the depth of the nominal-size aggregate diameter is uniformly exposed across the pavement, and some of the aggregates are loose.
36Application Procedures Evaluate equipment commonly used.How is equipment calibration performed to ensure correct material coverage?Evaluate different airport conditions (i.e., traffic, weather, etc.) and their effect on markings.Consider types of pavement surfaces.Evaluate installation of both temporary and permanent markings.6. Observe clean up/housekeeping procedures.
37Application Procedures Adequate surface preparation is performed.Layout establishes guidelines for applicators.Pointer systems are used for accurate placement of markings.Markings are applied from 6 to 36 inches in a uniform filmthickness in a single pass.Two or more colors are applied simultaneously.Glass beads are dispensed automatically with the coating.Pressurized bead systems provide best distribution.Hand machines are equipped with automatic bead dispensers.
38Application Procedures Windscreens are used to prevent material displacement.A primer coat is applied to uncoated asphalt.Calibration of material guns is performed.Close attention is paid to application rates.Uniform, specified film thickness across marking.Test lines are applied in appropriate areas or on tar paper.Documentation of marking operations is maintained torecord location, quantity, weather conditions, etc.Equipment is well maintained.
39Tools to Evaluate Markings (Tool Kit) Wet Film GaugeBead Gun Calibration BucketMagnifying LensColor Chips and/or ColorimeterLTL ReflectometerFlashlightDuct tapeMetal coupons
43But a nighttime visual inspection reveals uneven reflectivity
44Acknowledgments: Research Team Members: Charles D. Carneal, President, Safety Coatings, Inc.H. Gene Hawkins, Ph.D., Hawkins EngineeringStephen M. Quilty, A.A.E., Bowling Green State Univ.Cynthia Randazzo, Scientist, Rohm and Haas CompanyDonald Schall, Distinguished Scientist, Rohm and Haas Co.Michael W. Speidel, Marketing Manager, Sightline, LCFred C. Peil, V.P., FOL Tape, LLC
45Acknowledgments: FAA Cooperative Agreement Manager: Dr. Satish Agrawal IPRF Cooperative Agreement Program Manager:Jim Lafrenz45
46Acknowledgments: IPRF Technical Panel Members: Michael Ates, AFCESA (Air Force Civil Engineering Support Agency)Gilbert Rushton, MDSHA (Maryland State Highway Administration)Jeffrey Rapol, FAA (Federal Aviation Administration)Holly Cyrus, FAA (Federal Aviation Administration)Ron Boeger, Flex-O-Lite, Affiliate of PQ CorporationMark Jansen, P.E., The LPA Group, Inc.46
47Acknowledgments: The staff of the many airports visited. The participants of the Roundtable Discussion.The staff of the airport marking contractors.The industry experts, including material andequipment manufacturers.47