Presentation on theme: "Airfield Marking Handbook Primary Investigator Donna Speidel, President – Sightline, LC IPRF/FAA Project No. 01-G-002-05-1."— Presentation transcript:
Airfield Marking Handbook Primary Investigator Donna Speidel, President – Sightline, LC IPRF/FAA Project No. 01-G
Sightline, LC (Airport Marking Consultants) is the author of the Airfield Marking Handbook. The project was administered by the Innovative Pavement Research Foundation under a Cooperative Research Agreement with the Federal Aviation Administration
Markings If a sign is unlit or broken, it gets replaced. If a taxiway light is malfunctioning, it gets fixed. But how do you know when the markings are “broken”? NAVAIDS Signs Lights
Marking Standards FAA AC 150/5340-1J USAF ETL 04-2 USN UFGS USACE TM Describes WHAT the markings are, WHEN you’re supposed to use them WHEN you’re supposed to use them and WHERE they belong. and WHERE they belong.
Visibility of Markings Contrast of markings (black border) “The contrast of markings on light colored pavements can be increased by outlining them with a black border at least 6-inches in width.” AC 150/5340-1H, dated 8/31/99 (FAA)
Visibility of Markings Use of glass beads: “Markings that cannot be seen by pilots and others operating on marked surfaces are useless.” AC 150/5340-1H, dated 8/31/99 (FAA)
Visibility of Markings Markings should be as visible during darkness as they are in the daylight.
Visibility of Markings Quality Application All the efforts to increase visibility with black borders, glass beads and new designs are futile if markings are not applied well.
Objectives of the handbook 2. What constitutes a “quality” marking? 3. When is a marking functional and when is it “unsafe”? is it “unsafe”? 4. What is a good application v. a poor one? 1.What can be done to increase the life-cycle of airfield markings?
30 industry participants met in Kansas City on June 15, 2006: airport engineering consultants, FAA staff, airport management, maintenance personnel, striping contractors, material manufacturers, and military airport managers Roundtable Discussion
1.Application Procedures Top FIVE Industry Issues 2.Surface Preparation 3.Pavement Marking Removal 4.Material Selection 5.Project Specifications
1.Address the standard specifications and guidance literature, emphasizing the need to customize specifications to fit the project. 2.When is maintenance necessary? 3.Develop measured and detailed techniques for quality assurance. 4.Create a tool kit for inspection of marking application. Project Specifications
Marking Maintenance Markings degrade slowly due to: traffic (worn marking) sunlight (UV deterioration) rain (paint absorbs water, expands and contracts) snowplows, sweepers contaminants (oils, rust deposits, algae, rubber) loss of retro-reflectivity Who’s watching?
Marking Maintenance Prevent degradation due to: Poor Application Practices
Worn Markings - over 50% of paint is gone.
Nighttime visibility is poor to bad:
Project Specifications Verify material types and quantities. Specify materials arrive in sealed containers. Evaluate actual site conditions, specify remediation. Evaluate condition of pavement under markings. Evaluate surface preparation methods and quantities. Determine amount, type, and degree of marking removal. Select materials appropriate to the airport environment.
1.Observe the different marking materials already approved for use on airports, noting the advantages and disadvantages of each. 2.Develop criteria for deciding the best materials suited for a project based on pavement surfaces, existing markings, airport weather conditions, and airport operations. 3. Review current material testing procedures. Material Selection
Glass beads are selected appropriate to the type and thickness of coating specified as well as airport needs. Select materials suited for the pavement or existing coatings. Temporary marking materials are selected for “removability”. Materials are selected based on the airport environment. Materials are sampled directly from equipment guns.
1.Create an effective definition of surface preparation. 2.Develop ways of determining when surface preparation is necessary, if not always. 3.What equipment is best suited to do the work? Surface Preparation
Surface preparation is the cleaning of anything that would prevent the bond of the new coating to either the pavement or existing coatings. Definition:
“Seventy-five percent of all material failures are attributable to deficient surface preparation and/or application. The unit cost of repair is normally two and one half times higher than the original material application unit cost and frequently results in lower quality due to adverse application conditions. This analysis does not include the potentially staggering cost of down-time and loss of facility production.” S. G. Pinney & Associates
Surface Preparation Waterblasting is best method for surface preparation. Perform surface preparation before painting to remove: Curing compound on new concrete. Algae. Rust discoloration. Oily substances including jet blast residue. Sweep, blow with air, or rinse with water after preparation. Specify surface preparation as a separate bid item. Loose and poorly bonded paint. Heavy rubber build up.
Surface Preparation Adequate surface preparation will: Prolong the life of the markings. Save valuable airport funds. Prevent paint build-up/pavement damage. Reduce FOD.
1.Define paint removal. 2.Define different types of removal encountered. 3.Define the degrees of removal required. 4.Describe type(s) of equipment and effectiveness on varying pavement conditions, thickness of and types of existing coatings. 5.Define pavement damage. Pavement Marking Removal
There are several reasons airports remove markings, and each situation requires different degrees (or percentages) of eradication. Pavement Marking Removal Definition: Pavement marking removal is the mechanical eradication of markings from the pavement to a specified degree.
Pavement Marking Removal Degree of removal is defined in specifications. Markings are removed, not “blacked” out or obscured. Equipment is specified based on conditions. Shotblasting is effective on non-grooved surfaces. Waste water and debris are contained, characterized, and properly disposed of. Test strips indicate capability of equipment and operator. Waterblasting is effective on most surfaces. The scar is thoroughly cleaned before applying markings.
Pavement Marking Removal All marking removal methods will leave a scar. Scarring is removal of the texture with some exposed aggregate. Handbook definition:
Pavement Marking Removal PRE-EXISTING DAMAGE
Handbook definition: Damage occurs when more than 25 percent of the depth of the nominal-size aggregate diameter is uniformly exposed across the pavement, and some of the aggregates are loose. Pavement Marking Removal Pavement damage can be subjective.
1.Evaluate equipment commonly used. 2.How is equipment calibration performed to ensure correct material coverage? 3.Evaluate different airport conditions (i.e., traffic, weather, etc.) and their effect on markings. 4.Consider types of pavement surfaces. 5.Evaluate installation of both temporary and permanent markings. 6. Observe clean up/housekeeping procedures. Application Procedures
Layout establishes guidelines for applicators. Adequate surface preparation is performed. Glass beads are dispensed automatically with the coating. Pressurized bead systems provide best distribution. Hand machines are equipped with automatic bead dispensers. Two or more colors are applied simultaneously. Markings are applied from 6 to 36 inches in a uniform film thickness in a single pass. Pointer systems are used for accurate placement of markings.
Application Procedures Calibration of material guns is performed. Close attention is paid to application rates. Uniform, specified film thickness across marking. Test lines are applied in appropriate areas or on tar paper. Documentation of marking operations is maintained to record location, quantity, weather conditions, etc. A primer coat is applied to uncoated asphalt. Equipment is well maintained. Windscreens are used to prevent material displacement.
Tools to Evaluate Markings (Tool Kit) Wet Film Gauge Bead Gun Calibration Bucket Magnifying Lens Color Chips and/or Colorimeter LTL Reflectometer Flashlight Duct tape Metal coupons
But a nighttime visual inspection reveals uneven reflectivity
Acknowledgments: Research Team Members: Charles D. Carneal, President, Safety Coatings, Inc. H. Gene Hawkins, Ph.D., Hawkins Engineering Stephen M. Quilty, A.A.E., Bowling Green State Univ. Cynthia Randazzo, Scientist, Rohm and Haas Company Donald Schall, Distinguished Scientist, Rohm and Haas Co. Michael W. Speidel, Marketing Manager, Sightline, LC Fred C. Peil, V.P., FOL Tape, LLC
Acknowledgments: IPRF Cooperative Agreement Program Manager: Jim Lafrenz FAA Cooperative Agreement Manager: Dr. Satish Agrawal
Acknowledgments: IPRF Technical Panel Members: Michael Ates, AFCESA (Air Force Civil Engineering Support Agency) Gilbert Rushton, MDSHA (Maryland State Highway Administration) Jeffrey Rapol, FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) Holly Cyrus, FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) Ron Boeger, Flex-O-Lite, Affiliate of PQ Corporation Mark Jansen, P.E., The LPA Group, Inc.
Acknowledgments: The staff of the many airports visited. The participants of the Roundtable Discussion. The staff of the airport marking contractors. The industry experts, including material and equipment manufacturers.