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What are NRMs? RELS 225 Cults and New Religious Movements RELS 225 Cults and New Religious Movements.

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Presentation on theme: "What are NRMs? RELS 225 Cults and New Religious Movements RELS 225 Cults and New Religious Movements."— Presentation transcript:

1 What are NRMs? RELS 225 Cults and New Religious Movements RELS 225 Cults and New Religious Movements

2 Slide 2. AgendaAgenda Attendance The Unification Church Chapter 2: What are New Religious Movements? Debate Main points

3 Slide 3. BeliefsBeliefs Similar Death & Afterlife Death is not to be feared When you die you go on to live Different Death & Afterlife A cycle of life is going on. Fall brought on spiritual death (loss of spirituality). Resurrection not bodily; was to resurrect God’s plan. Go in one of 3 mostly spiritual worlds (the further you are along the path) where life goes on much like here: High – followers of Moon Medium Low – most of us But to maintain a physical contact, a lower level dead person must connect with a living Moonie (like a guardian angel). This explains special powers & miracles.

4 Slide 4. BeliefsBeliefs Ultimate End of Time Not apocalyptic, but progressive Once we all see the light & find balance, the world will be more perfect & it will become paradise.

5 Slide 5. BeliefsBeliefs The Good life & how to lead it. Highly prescriptive. Concerned with appearance Short hair, suits, ties. Modest. Before married, live in group communal home. Once married, move out on own, close to centre. Role of women traditional, subservient, conservative policy.

6 Slide 6. Central ethical points concern sexuality Absolute celibacy before marriage, & demonstrate it. Marriages are arranged (Moon himself used to arrange them) Interracial, to produce unification After marriage, 40 days celibate (upon church approval) Once married, dedicated primarily to God, so separated a lot. No objection to birth control. As many as you know you can fully love. Divorce: not supposed to happen. Mass marriage: why? $400 paid, but provided with fitted gown, tuxedo, photos, banquet, venues. No homosexuality

7 Slide 7. Review: Moonies Controversy over Unification Church recruitment; fundraising; Mass weddings; politics; “Washington Times”; businesses; lavish lifestyle; tax evasion Divine Principle Discovered the “Secret crime of Adam & Eve” new Adam & Eve needed: 1992 Moon declared to be new Adam. East-West misunderstanding 1959 missionary; 1970: Moon came to U.S.A. Skill-in-means; levels create impression of secret teaching Beliefs Revelation continues Humanity requires balance of mind-body, kingdom of love. Once we all see the light & find balance, the world will become paradise. Highly prescriptive; especially sexuality

8 Slide 8. Debate format Five minute limit on each stage of the debate: 1.One side will have their chance to present the evidence and argument for their side, 2.Then the other side will have a chance to rebut the arguments given, 3.and present their side. 4.The first group will then offer their rebuttal. 5.Cross-examination. Each debater will take turns questioning individual opponents.

9 Slide 9. The Future of Religion New Religions have emerged in the last few decades. Are these a sign of what religion will become? Or are they the last remnant of religion?

10 Slide 10. Berger on the Role of Religion Berger (1967) Nomos Humans want stability Anomie Things happen to destabilize our lives. What things? This is the human predicament Religion seeks to protect from anomie Nomos vs. Anomie and alienation Externalize Objectivize Internalize

11 Slide 11. Berger on Secularization Secularization (culture not dominated by religion) Personal (privatized, not shared) Choice (options and optional, imagined) Religious claims are relativised. Religion is doomed

12 Slide 12. Stark & Bainbridge 4 premises 1.acknowledge the supernatural 2.Humans seek rewards and avoid costs 3.Rewards are scarce 4.Absence of real rewards leads to compensators: postulating future rewards Religions provide general compensators based on supernatural assumptions

13 Slide 13. Stark & Bainbridge Effects of Secularization NOT: humans no longer need such compensators 1.Revival (sects) 2.Innovation (cults) Cults are the unchurched trying to become churched Triumph of commercial & consumer ethic

14 Slide 14. LabellingLabelling Troeltsch: Churches: born Sects: join Yinger: Universal: Catholic Ecclesia: Anglican, Sunni Denomination: Baptist, Presbyterian Established sect: Jehovah’s Witnesses, Christian Science Sect: Pentecostals, Worldwide Church of God Cult: Moonies, Scientology

15 Slide 15. Wilson’s Sect/Cult Typology Sects: Change self Conversionist (Salvation Army, Pentecostal) Revolutionist (Jehovah’s Witnesses, Christadelphians) Introversionist (Hutterite, Exclusive Brethren) Manipulationist (Christian Science) Thaumaturgical (Spiritualism) Reformist (Quaker) Utopian (Oneida, Bruderhof) Cults: Illumination (Theosophy, Spiritualism) Instrumental (Scientology, Soka Gakkai) Service-oriented

16 Slide 16. Robbins & Anthony Typology Dualistic or Monistic? Multilevel or Unilevel?

17 Slide 17. Wallis’s Sect/Cult Typology Attitude to world Affirm? Reject? Accommodate?

18 Slide 18. Dawson’s Sect/Cult Typology Mode of Membership 1.Audience 2.Client 3.Cult Movement

19 Slide 19. Cult Features Cults meet individual needs / desires Claim esoteric knowledge Direct ecstatic experience Offer shorter, surer, safer, clearer salvation Often no systematic orientation to society Loosely organized Charismatic leader Usually short-lived

20 Spiritual Quest of Generation X Spiritual Quest of Generation X Spiritual Quest of Generation X Spiritual Quest of Generation X 29 minutes

21 Slide 21. Next Religious Movement Read about Secret Societies (on Moodle)

22 Slide 22. Next Sociological Issue Read Chapter 3 in Comprehending Cults Write a summary and response, and paste it into Moodle Debate teams 3A & 3B

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