WORST SERIAL TITLE CHANGES OF THE YEAR AWARDS FOR 2002 "To Be or Not to Be Award" –This award goes to the National Stroke Association for changing the title of Be Stroke Smart to Stroke Smart. This was not smart. “Going Down the Wrong Path” or the “Road Less Traveled Award” –This award goes to the Royal Society of Medicine Press for changing the title of the Journal of Integrated Care to Journal of Integrated Care Pathways. This one’s enough to make catalogers hit the road.
Why serials? They affect all areas of library operations –purchasing –cataloging –circulation –shelving and preservation –public services / reference –interlibrary loan They contain information required by patrons They are fun and interesting
What is a Serial? 1904 - Charles Cutter –A publication issued in successive parts, usually at regular intervals and continued indefinitely. 1927 - Winifred Gregory –A publication not issued by a governmental agency, appearing at regular or staged intervals of less than a year, and including articles on various subjects. 1939 - Louis Shores –Any publication issued serially or in successive parts more or less regularly.
What is a Serial? 1952 - Belle E. Schactman –Any title issued in parts which is incomplete in the collection. 1965 - Information Dynamics Corp. –Any publication, in any format, issued in parts for indeterminate periods at stated or unstated periods or intervals. AACR2 (pre-2002): A publication in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numeric or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely.
HOUSTON, WE HAVE A PROBLEM Are websites serials or monographs? Are online databases serials or monographs? And what about those loose-leafs?
What is a Serial? AACR2 2002 revision: –A continuing resource issued in a succession of discrete parts, usually bearing numbering, that has no predetermined conclusion. –Examples include journals, magazines, electronic journals, continuing directories, annual reports, newspapers, and monographic series.
Changes in “Serial” Definition A continuing resource –(was: A publication) issued in a succession of discrete parts – (was: issued in successive parts) usually bearing numbering –(was: bearing numeric or chronological designations) that has no predetermined conclusion. –(was: intended to be continued indefinitely)
Serial definition What do we mean by: Discrete? –Separate parts/issues/articles Usually? –Unnumbered series or first issue not designated No predetermined conclusion –No obvious finiteness
AACR2 Chapter 12 Name now “Continuing Resources” Scope expanded: –Serials –Integrating resources –Some finite resources Reprints of serials Finite integrating resources Resources with characteristics of serials… but whose duration is limited (e.g. regular reports of a limited-term project, annual report of a commission that will exist only for a limited time) Not just for serial catalogers any more!
Bibliographic resource An expression or manifestation of a work or an item that forms the basis for bibliographic description. A bibliographic resource may be tangible or intangible. Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR)
Relationships -Work/Expression w 1 Charles Dickens’ A Christmas carol e 1 the author’s original English text e 2 a Tamil translation by V.A. Venkatachari
Relationships - Work/Expression/Manifestation w 1 J.S. Bach’s Goldberg variations e 1 performance by Glen Gould in 1981 m 1 recording released on 33 1/3 rpm sound disc in 1982 by CBS Records m 2 recording re-released on compact disc in 1993 by Sony m 3 digitization of the Sony re-release as MP3 in 2000
Relationships - Work/Expression/Manifestation/Item w 1 Lost treasures of the world e 1 the interactive electronic resource m 1 the CD published in 1994 by Follgard CD-Visions i 1 first copy held by Calgary Public Library i 2 second copy held by Calgary Public Library
Finite and continuing Finite Resource: –No formal definition; by implication the opposite of “continuing”: –A bibliographic resource issued once or over time with a predetermined conclusion (completed within a finite number of parts or iterations). –Includes monographs and finite integrating resources. Continuing Resource: –A bibliographic resource issued over time with no predetermined conclusion. –Includes serials and ongoing integrating resources.
Iteration Definition: An instance of an integrating resource, either as first published or after it has been updated.
Continuing Resources Continuing ResourcesContinuing Resources is a new concept that serves as a collective term for both serials and integrating resources –It refers to resources that have no predetermined conclusion –It is the title of Chapter 12 –It will be the new name for the Serials fixed field in MARC records which will be used for both serials and integrating resources
Integrating resource New definition in AACR2: “A bibliographic resource that is added to or changed by means of updates that do not remain discrete and are integrated into the whole. Integrating resources can be finite or continuing …” Most common: –Updating loose-leafs –Updating electronic resources
Differences: integrating resources and serials The primary difference between an integrating resource and a serial is the manner in which it is issued –Serials are issued in discrete parts –Integrating resources are issued with updates that do not remain discrete
Differences in cataloging Basis of the description: –Serials: First or earliest available issue –Integrating Resources: Latest iteration Change conventions: –Serials: Successive entry (a new record each time there is a major change) –Integrating Resources: Integrating entry (the same record is used and updated for most changes)
OCLC: NEW Rec stat: n Entered: 20030207 Replaced: 20030207 Used: 20030207 Type: r ELvl: I Srce: d Audn: Ctrl: Lang: dog BLvl: m Form: GPub : Time: nnn MRec: Ctry: mou Desc: a TMat: r Tech: n DtSt: m Dates: 1999,9999 040 $a ZCU $c ZCU 020 $a 101010101 : $c priceless 090 $a SF429.S64 $b R62 1999 092 $a 636.76 $2 21 049 $a ZPSA 245 00 $a Rocky $h [realia] : $b beloved pet / $c raised and loved by Rick Block and Bill Vosburg. 256 $a Shih tzu 260 $a Missouri : $b Farm, $c 1999- 300 $a 1 dog : $b male, black and white, 18 lbs. ; $c 51 x 33 cm. 440 0 $a Block/Vosburg dog series ; $v no. 1 650 0 $a Shih tzu.
Three Major Types of Integrating Resources Updating Loose-leaf –Examples: AACR2, CONSER Editing Guide, LCRIs, many law reporters and legal loose-leaf services Updating Database –Examples: OCLC WorldCat, Books in Print online Updating Web Site –Examples: LC Web site, CONSER Web site, Columbia University Web site
Integrating resources may be continuing or finite While all integrating resources are intended to be updated, some are finite in scope –E.g., ALA 2001 Midwinter Meeting Web site --has a predetermined conclusion Both are included in Chapter 12 because: –There is no difference in the way they would be cataloged –It might be difficult to make this distinction –The distinctions are not useful to patrons
Types of online serials E-serials “born digital,” that is, originally published online –some of these may later appear in cumulated print format Reproductions, republications, simultaneous editions of print titles –Issued by original print publisher, a contracted third party or as part of a digital library project
Types of online serials Titles that are part of a database of aggregated titles –May vary in completeness of reproduction and coverage of issues –May be the most predominate type of e-serial that libraries purchase and need to control
Growth of Online Serials 1987 - 1st known e-journal - Syracuse University published Journal of Graduate Education 1991 - 1st ARL Directory listed 110 titles 1996 - listed 1689 May 1997 - 3800 journals announced on e-journal list Today - ??? Too many to count
Columbia E-Journal Numbers 13,348 records (titles) 16,281 URLs As of 10-2-2003
Going Digital An online version of a print serial or other physical format serial that does not retain separate discrete parts or issues in online format, would be cataloged as an integrating resource
Serial in print format ACS directory of graduate research 1st ed American Chemical Society Washington, D.C.
Resource discovery methods and control How do libraries provide access to electronic resources? Institutional gateways to Web based resources –Lists and menus that provide access to serials –Subscription products and services OPAC record with links to the resources and services
Resource discovery and control Metadata standards that promote the embedding of description and search terms in the resource itself –Search engines can more effectively find the resource
Why catalog them with AACR2 and MARC 21? Provide access to all versions of a bibliographic resource in the OPAC –Including cases where format changes from print to online only Resource Discovery: Controlled vocabulary and MARC 21 content designation for selected Internet resources OPAC can reflect licensed/fee-based library acquisitions
Access: Cataloging Titles individually cataloged following the same procedures as for other serials Advantages –Benefits of complete MARC records: standard description, access points, controlled subject headings, and authority control –Consistency within the catalog: one stop shopping for catalog users –OCLC records may be available for popular aggregators Disadvantages –Cataloging not timely when aggregators larger than a couple hundred titles –Records are more prone to maintenance/deletion
Single Record Approach Libraries may note information about the electronic version on the record for the print publication rather than separately cataloging the electronic version Generally, libraries only use for titles they hold in print, but can also be used if library doesn’t hold the print version
Cataloging: single record Advantages –Benefits of complete print serial records –Doesn’t require cataloging expertise –Staff can process larger packages in a more timely fashion Disadvantages –Cataloging still required for those titles not already held in print –Loss of access points and description specific to the electronic version
Single record approach – Advantages Patron/public service staff convenience Generally cheaper to catalog More timely access Fewer records to maintain
Single record approach – Disadvantages Difficult to search for electronic versions because of loss of electronic descriptive information If records sets are available, may be cheaper to load separate records Resource sharing issues
Single record approach – Factors Single record approach works well when Online version contains enough original content that it can act as a surrogate or substitute for the original Online version only contains selections (e.g., TOC, abstracts) and thus not worth cataloging separately Separate records should be used when There are significant differences between print and online content Library wants separate records for identification purposes or other local considerations
Access: Title Lists In the beginning, e-serial access was provided through alphabetic lists on web pages Alphabetic browse lists are still popular If unable to provide online access through the catalog, this may be the only option for access
Access: Separate database Creation and maintenance of a separate database of a library’s aggregator serial title coverage Advantage –Requires no cataloging resources Disadvantages –Users must consult two sources to determine serial title holdings –Duplicates efforts to provide catalog access (if not recycling catalog data) –Individual libraries must do the work themselves –Possibly no subject or corporate body access Note: Access through a separate database is not a substitute for catalog access, but can be a wonderful enhancement
Access: vendors Vendor solutions cover a range of possibilities including : Printed lists Title and holdings data Record sets More sophisticated online access Management information Vendors include Serials Solutions, TDNet, 1Cate
Aggregators (aggravators) A collection of publications in electronic form, usually full-text versions of print journals Some aggregations are stable and well maintained. Examples: Project Muse, JSTOR Some aggregations have surprises! Examples: Lexis/Nexis, Proquest
The Aggregator (aggravator) Basic Model –Many titles from diverse publishers –Cost is roughly $5.00 per title per subscribing library per year. –Publishers see as: Additional revenue stream (good) Possible competition for their own product (bad) –Suppliers see as: Cheap way to get lots of content with indexing A commodity
The Aggregator (aggravator) –Libraries (ideally) see as: Source of convenience –The issue: When these titles are viewed by libraries as a replacement for print they need to understand that long-term access is not a given. –The reality: Lost content
Stable Aggregators The titles have a common element (usually publisher) Each title has complete full-text (or if not complete, known differences are made clear) Browsable because collection is organized by title and issue Aggregator maintains a stable title list There is a close correspondence between print and online Aggregator notifies subscriber of changes to collection Compare this to:
Aggregators with Surprises! Often have subject orientation representing many publishers Large and amorphous collections Individual titles come and go depending on database providers arrangement with publisher Not browsable (lacks title and/or issue-level web pages) Lacks complete full-text coverage (full-text for some articles but not others) Content may include monographs, reference books, newspapers and pamphlets Most packages are somewhere on a continuum between stable/well-maintained and full of surprises
Providing access to journal packages Catalog and provide access in OPAC Through webliographies and gateways Transparently from online indexes and databases
Access: Aggregators (aggravators) Records for a particular aggregator provided by the aggregator or purchased from a service Considerations Record completeness Updates and maintenance Cost Relation to records already in your catalog Exit strategy If your library’s subscription to 2000 Science Direct titles is cancelled, how are you going to get those records and links out of your catalog tomorrow??
Additional factors Record set availability Collection development issues Staffing levels and expertise Local workflows and practices Your OPAC Vendor-supplied services User needs
Aggregator-Neutral Record CONSER and OCLC have announced plans for collapsing separate records for a title offered by multiple aggregators The resulting record would not describe details of any particular aggregator- focus on the title This would facilitate local adaptation of records for titles in aggregator databases
These records will be collapsed 130 0 American literature (Online : Project Muse) 245 00 American literature $h [electronic resource]. 362 1 Electronic coverage as of Oct. 13, 1999: Vol. 71, no. 3 (Sept. 1999)- 550 Digitized and made available by Project Muse. 710 2 Project Muse. 856 40 $u http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/al/ 130 0 American literature (Online : JSTOR) 245 00 American literature $h [electronic resource]. 362 0 Vol. 1, no. 1 (Mar. 1929)- 550 Digitized and made available by JSTOR. 710 2 JSTOR (Organization) 856 40 $u http://www.jstor.org/journals/00029831.html 130 0 American literature (Online : OCLC) 245 00 American literature $h [electronic resource]. 362 1 Electronic coverage as of May 1, 2000: Vol.71, no. 4 (Dec. 1999)- 500 Made available through OCLC FirstSearch Electronic Collections Online. 856 40 $u http://firstsearch.oclc.org/journal=0002-9831;screen=info;ECOIP
Resulting Record 130 0 American literature (Online) 245 00 American literature $h [electronic resource]. 260 Durham, N.C. : $b Duke University Press, $c 1929- 856 40 $u http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/al/http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/al/ 856 40 $u http://www.jstor.org/journals/00029831.htmlhttp://www.jstor.org/journals/00029831.html 856 40 $u http://firstsearch.oclc.org/journal=0002- 9831;screen=info;ECOIP
Columbia Strategy for E-Resource Control & Access Hire Networked Electronic Resources Librarian! Expanded e-resource cataloging coverage in CLIO –Purchase title-level catalog & metadata records for sets whenever feasible –Use services like Serials Solutions for titles carried in databases –Do proactive and on-request local cataloging of individual e-resources
Columbia Strategy for E-Resource Control & Access Flexible & functional LWEB presentation –Integrated, flexible, browsable LWEB displays –"Backlinks" to CLIO from LWEB citations as appropriate –Individual resource title "lookup" function in LWEB –Optional alternate resource listings with display of annotations Improved subject access in LWEB –Subject category display via HILCC –Systematic and ongoing refinement and extension of HILCC; Bib Control collaborates directly with selectors –Keyword index to HILCC subject categories to supplement hierarchical access –Geographic content access via LC geographic area code
Columbia E-Journal Issues and Strategies We will continue to rely on SerialsSolutions to supply most catalog records and holdings information for e-journals We need to more actively pursue means of filling in gaps in what SerialsSolutions provides –Monitor accuracy and completeness of their coverage –Report errors and work with SerialsSolutions to improve service –Supplement SerialsSolutions services with local procedures and develop clear guidelines to distinguish between the two
Columbia E-Journal Issues and Strategies Actions on existing SerialsSolutions packages –Records for missing titles Catalog locally Catalog in CONSER Notify SerialsSolutions –Errors or gaps in holdings Correct locally and/or report to SerialsSolutions –Creating forms and procedures for reporting problems Procedures for titles and packages not covered by SerialsSolutions
Canceling print Operating budget reduction Put our effort where use is (electronic) Decreasing use of print serial collections Where feasible and makes sense from both a collections and user perspective, cancel print subscription in favor of electronic Not across the board; always option to keep print For major journal packages, beginning with sciences and social sciences; just beginning discussions with humanities
Canceling print Faculty and student reaction in sciences and social sciences: no problem; users incredibly happy with e-journals Need to stay in sync with users and their needs Budget savings will be used to purchase electronic archives and supplement monograph budget First packages: Elsevier Science Direct, IEEE conference proceedings, Sage social work titles, Kluwer, Wiley Interscience
Canceling print Print version –Departmental library actions to close patterns –Actions between cancellation and final receipt –Reference to online continuation in print record No URL; note that print subscription cancelled Implications of e-only for –Verifying access –Discovering, verifying, reporting new titles, dropped titles, changes in coverage, title changes, etc. –“Claiming” (detecting and reporting missing content) –ILL
HILCC Columbia's Hierarchical Interface to LC Classification (HILCC) project is intended to test the potential of using the LC Classification numbers provided in standard catalog records to generate a structured menuing system for subject access on the web. The HILCC mapping table —jointly developed by CUL digital library division, cataloging and reference staff — links each LC classification range with vocabulary in a three-level subject tree, for example: –LC Range: GC1 - GC1582 –Maps to:Sciences -- Earth & Environmental Sciences -- Oceanography
HILCC Call numbers from catalog records extracted from CLIO (Columbia's LMS) can be matched against the HILCC mapping table, and a browsable subject category tree generated on the web to guide users through e-resource subject content. As of June 2001 HILCC has been used for the Browsable E-journal Subject Listings. Browsable E-journal Subject Listings We intend to expand the use of HILCC for access to other electronic resources, e.g. Reference tools and indexes (RTI)
HILCC Design Principles The first level display should include no more than twelve (or so) categories. HILCC's overall hierarchy should be no more than three levels deep. The degree of granularity should be relative to the actual resources available. Subject categories should be built from LCC but not constrained by it. A specific LC class range should map to only a single location in the HILCC structure.
HILCC Design Principles HILCC processing and output should accommodate multiple LC class numbers appearing in a single bibliographic record. The categorization and presentation of interdisciplinary resources should be addressed separately from the main HILCC effort. The user interface must include composite, summary lists at the first and second levels of each hierarchy. When feasible, terminology used at the lowest level of the hierarchy should be meaningful and unambiguous when displayed independently.
HILCC: Future Developments Interdisciplinary mini-HILCCs:. extending the HILCC project to include customized presentations of interdisciplinary resources. Library staff need a simple but flexible way of creating targeted listings of resources by computer-assisted means, both on demand and for public presentation of our digital library collections. Review of HILCC Terms Against LC Subject Headings: work has already been done at the Library of Congress and elsewhere to begin to correlate LC subject headings with relevant portions of the LC Class Schedules. Improving HILCC terminology by use of LC subject headings may benefit users and provide the Library more options for using HILCC as a basis for newer kinds of subject-oriented access. Resource Presentation Using Additional Metadata Elements: using other metadata elements in combination with HILCC for browsing and searching for materials; these additional elements or aspects include: genre or format (e.g., e-journals, e-texts), geographic content (e.g., online resources from or about sub-Saharan Africa), "reference-ness“ (e.g., key online databases in Public Affairs).
HILCC: Future Developments New Interactive Modes of User Discovery. The availability of rich metadata extracted from catalog records and made available via a robust SQL/Web retrieval framework potentially provides a powerful toolset to experiment operationally with more "intelligent" forms of user interaction such as: –basic research dialogues with users, allowing search strategies to be refined, expanded, limited, etc. –content mapping and visual navigation, allowing users to see the depth of content in certain collection areas, the relationships between content clusters –interactive query optimization with user-assigned relevancy weighting –creation of a non-specialist cataloging interface for faculty or other researchers to prepare metadata and integrate their resources into Columbia's digital collections using HILCC categories
Six Phases of a Project 1.Enthusiasm 2.Disillusionment 3.Panic 4.Search for the Guilty 5.Punishment of the Innocent 6.Praise and Honors for the Non- Participants
Linking –Any protocol that allows the user to directly access information indentified without going through an intermediate step. Full-text Abstract/TOC Document Delivery/ILL Local Catalog Search Etc.
Linking OpenURL –A URL, imbedding metadata in a standard fashion, allowing it to be interpreted by an external target. –SFX www.sfxit.comwww.sfxit.com –EBSCO SmartLinks www.epnet.comwww.epnet.com –Endeavor www.endinfosys.com –Others on the market or soon to arrive
Linking Source –Where the user begins his or her search, usually an indexing/abstracting tool, the local catalog or similar bibliographic services Target –Where the links presented by a source will take the user. The places where the desired bits of information reside
What our patrons tell us The electronic world is good Indexing is great Full-text is even greater SFX Statistics: 39,350 total hits 21,993 get full text July 1-Nov. 10, 2003
Linking Options SFX – as an example of locally-controlled linking –Our decision based on local control ability to create targets (and sources) ability to present multiple links when multiple options exist most mature tool at the time
Experience with SFX Continue to add sources/targets Usage growing rapidly after slow start Maintenance is something to consider –SFX adds one more player into the matrix –suppliers not yet used to thinking about SFX when making decisions No consistent approach by producers
E-Resources on LibraryWeb The Libraries completed a year-long project to upgrade our 5-year old LibraryWeb publishing system for current, licensed electronic resources. Our new, more powerful process now involves extraction of records for e-journal and electronic reference tools directly from our online catalog, loading into the enterprise SQL system (IBM's dB2) that acts as our Master Metadata File, and the generation of real-time lookup and browse functionality. Master Metadata File This enhanced system allows us to create interfaces and retrieval methods that are optimized for electronic resources in a way that cannot yet be done in our online catalog; it also provides a bibliographic knowledge base that will be used for other types of value added services, such as database advisers, research guides, and quick bibliographies.
E-Resources on LibraryWeb The next phase of this development will entail allowing selectors and bibliographers actually to supply annotatations (scope, related resources, search tips, etc.) to our local online catalog records for e-resource titles so that this information can be displayed for end- users both on our LibraryWeb and in the OPAC. During the past year, we have also successfully incorporated additional item-level e-journal records from Serial Solutions and other sources into our OPAC and Master Metadata File, allowing users to see current e- journal coverage and holdings for many titles.
Change in URL Online access to Web resources through a Web catalog is generally provided by a URL in the MARC 856 field Libraries rely on several methods to identify when URLs have changed, including: –Link checking (automated or manual) –Reports from catalog users –Reports from publishers Library staff must edit the catalog record to provide current access
Change in URL P ersistent U niform R esource L ocator A URL which instead of pointing directly to a Web resource, points to an intermediate resolution service that redirects the browser to the resource’s current URL
PURLs Advantages –There is a single URL which will always be associated with a particular Web resource, thus –There is no need for catalog record maintenance as URL maintenance happens in the resolution table Disadvantages –URL maintenance must still happen –Only authorized entity can update resolution table
Columbia URL Resolver As part of cataloging any e-resource, the publisher's URL is submitted to the Library Systems Office (LSO) so that it can be added to tables within our URL Resolver. Simplifies maintenance. If domain name changes, it can be changed in the Resolver rather than record by record. In order to permit users to access these services from home or other locations when not connected to the Internet through Columbia, the Resolver provides links to redirect users to the proxy server. Unauthorized use of paid resources by individuals not affiliated with the University can be prevented. Enables us to gather usage statistics and redirect services during service outages.
ISSN for e-serials Current policy is separate ISSN for paper and online serials Publishers might be: –Printing multiple ISSN one labeled “print ISSN” and the other labeled “online ISSN” –Printing a single ISSN not labeled as print or online These may or may not be the correct ISSN
Players within the library Selection process –Collection development chooses content to be purchased –Systems staff involvement which version(s) can be locally supported which version(s) do we choose to support sometimes becomes suggestor to titles “We found this neat group of titles that we’d like to put up…”
Players within the library Selection Process (continued) –Do we purchase the title or an aggregation which versions are actually complete does the title exist in more than one package –Some titles fall out of the sky –Some library models allow/encourage links to “free” sources with no involvement of processing staff
Players within the library Purchase –Are we purchasing or licensing? –Determination of availability, package plans, different rate if we have the paper, etc. –Access restrictions - what are we willing to accept or negotiate –Blending of funds to finance purchase
Players within the library Cataloging –Traditional function remains multiple records, or combination of all formats on one record addition of URL to cataloging record Metadata, OCLC Connexion, etc. –Maintain Web links
Players within the library Maintenance –Keeping the links working –Watching for changes in the product additional content changing restrictions different access options different purchasing opportunities
Players within the library Other players within the organization –partnering to provide content –joint funding/joint administration –physical infrastructure –availability of equipment capable of viewing documents –distribution of readers
Areas likely to see change Bibliographic Control Changing standards (AACR2, 2002 edition) Cataloging simplification Use of latest vs. successive entry Cataloging for access (URL’s) Cataloging what you don’t own Outsourcing
Areas likely to see change Access vs. (in addition to) ownership Who controls? Cooperative agreements What will it really cost? What happens when a supplier goes belly up? Does the library continue to have a role at all?
Areas likely to see change Housing and preservation Libraries are full, what do we do? How do you protect access to what you don’t own? Who is archiving? (lots of net stuff gone everyday) For paper, the standard has been Microfilm, a dead technology?, what will replace it? Cost of Print and electronic Publishers will make their $$ Will print and electronic continue to be linked? Will we pay by the glass, the gulp, or the sip?
Areas likely to see change Acquisition methods How do we select, purchase, receive, maintain records of, and account for stuff we don’t own and never even see? Who will be our users? Scientists and lawyers may already be lost, others may follow.
Areas likely to see change Role of the publishers –Publishers add value They package in a recognizable, usable, format They pass judgment on quality They provide a filter for the many voices competing for our attention They are scared and don’t have any answers either.
Areas likely to see change The role of consortial agreements –Bulk purchasing –Bulk access –Big chunk of $$ from individual library budgets –Usually, direct from the publisher, eliminating the vendor as an option Blurring of information and indexing –What is a publication? –What is the access to that publication? –What is the indexing to that publication?