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Chapter 6 Research Design: An Overview McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2011 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6 Research Design: An Overview McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2011 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 6 Research Design: An Overview McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2011 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

2 6-2 Learning Objectives Understand... The basic stages of research design. The major descriptors of research design. The major types of research designs. The relationships that exist between variables in research design and the steps for evaluating those relationships.

3 6-3 Research Guides Decisions “ Most human beings and most companies don’t like to make choices. And they particularly don’t like to make a few choices that they really have to live with.” Alan Lafley former president and chairman of the board P&G

4 6-4 PulsePoint: Research Revelation 76 The percent of mobile phone subscribers worldwide who use SMS text messaging.

5 6-5 What Is Research Design? Blueprint Plan Guide Framework

6 6-6 What Tools Are Used in Designing Research?

7 6-7 MindWriter Project Plan in Gantt chart format What Tools Are Used in Designing Research?

8 6-8 Design in the Research Process

9 6-9 Experimental Effects Perceptual Awareness Perceptual Awareness Research Environment Descriptors Question Crystallization Data Collection Method Time Dimension Topical Scope Purpose of Study Research Design Descriptors

10 6-10 Degree of Question Crystallization Exploratory Study Loose structure Expand understanding Provide insight Develop hypotheses Formal Study Precise procedures Begins with hypotheses Answers research questions

11 6-11 Approaches for Exploratory Investigations Participant observation Film, photographs Projective techniques Psychological testing Case studies Ethnography Expert interviews Document analysis Proxemics and Kinesics

12 6-12 Desired Outcomes of Exploratory Studies Established range and scope of possible management decisions Established major dimensions of research task Defined a set of subsidiary questions that can guide research design

13 6-13 Desired Outcomes of Exploratory Studies (cont.) Develop hypotheses about possible causes of management dilemma Learn which hypotheses can be safely ignored Learn which hypotheses can be safely ignored Conclude additional research is not needed or not feasible Conclude additional research is not needed or not feasible

14 6-14 Commonly Used Exploratory Techniques Secondary Data Analysis Focus Groups Experience Surveys

15 6-15 Face-to-face interaction— one of the best ways to learn from participants.

16 6-16 Experience Surveys What is being done? What has been tried in the past with or without success? How have things changed? Who is involved in the decisions? What problem areas can be seen? Whom can we count on to assist or participate in the research?

17 6-17 Focus Groups Group discussion 6-10 participants Moderator-led 90 minutes-2 hours

18 6-18 Research Design Descriptors Experimental Effects Perceptual Awareness Perceptual Awareness Research Environment Descriptors Question Crystallization Data Collection Method Time Dimension Topical Scope Purpose of Study

19 6-19 Data Collection Method MonitoringCommunication

20 6-20 Experimental Effects Perceptual Awareness Perceptual Awareness Research Environment Descriptors Question Crystallization Data Collection Method Time Dimension Topical Scope Purpose of Study Research Design Descriptors

21 6-21 The Time Dimension Cross-sectional Longitudinal

22 6-22 Experimental Effects Perceptual Awareness Perceptual Awareness Research Environment Descriptors Question Crystallization Data Collection Method Time Dimension Topical Scope Purpose of Study Research Design Descriptors

23 6-23 The Topical Scope Statistical Study Breadth Population inferences Quantitative Generalizable findings Case Study Depth Detail Qualitative Multiple sources of information

24 6-24 Experimental Effects Perceptual Awareness Perceptual Awareness Research Environment Descriptors Question Crystallization Data Collection Method Time Dimension Topical Scope Purpose of Study Research Design Descriptors

25 6-25 The Research Environment Field conditions Lab conditions Simulations

26 6-26 Experimental Effects Perceptual Awareness Perceptual Awareness Research Environment Descriptors Question Crystallization Data Collection Method Time Dimension Topical Scope Purpose of Study Research Design Descriptors

27 6-27 Purpose of the Study ReportingDescriptive Casual - Explanatory Causal - Predictive

28 6-28 Descriptive Studies When? How much? What? Who? Where?

29 6-29 Descriptive Studies Descriptions of population characteristics Descriptions of population characteristics Estimates of frequency of characteristics Estimates of frequency of characteristics Discovery of associations among variables Discovery of associations among variables

30 6-30 Experimental Effects Perceptual Awareness Perceptual Awareness Research Environment Descriptors Question Crystallization Data Collection Method Time Dimension Topical Scope Purpose of Study Research Design Descriptors

31 6-31 Experimental Effects Experiment Study involving the manipulation or control of one or more variables to determine the effect on another variable Ex Post Facto Study After-the-fact report on what happened to the measured variable

32 6-32 Ex Post Facto Design Fishing Club MemberNon-Fishing-Club Member AgeHigh Absentee Low AbsenteeHigh Absentee Low Absentee Under 30 years to and over005115

33 6-33 Causation and Experimental Design Random Assignment Control/ Matching

34 6-34 Mills Method of Agreement

35 6-35 Mills Method of Difference

36 6-36 Causal Studies Reciprocal Asymmetrical Symmetrical

37 6-37 Understanding Casual Relationships Property Response Stimulus Behavior Disposition

38 6-38 Asymmetrical Casual Relationships Stimulus-Response Disposition-Behavior Property- Behavior Property- Disposition

39 6-39 Types of Asymmetrical Causal Relationships Relationship Type Nature of Relationship Examples Stimulus-responseAn event or change results in a response from some object. A change in work rules leads to a higher level of worker output. A change in government economic policy restricts corporate financial decisions. A price increase results in fewer unit sales. Property- disposition An existing property causes a disposition. Age and attitudes about saving. Gender attitudes toward social issues. Social class and opinions about taxation. Disposition- behavior A disposition causes a specific behavior. Opinions about a brand and its purchase. Job satisfaction and work output. Moral values and tax cheating. Property-behaviorAn existing property causes a specific behavior. Stage of the family life cycle and purchases of furniture. Social class and family savings patterns. Age and sports participation.

40 6-40 Covariation between A and B Covariation between A and B Evidence of Causality Time order of events No other possible causes of B No other possible causes of B

41 6-41 Experimental Effects Perceptual Awareness Perceptual Awareness Research Environment Descriptors Question Crystallization Data Collection Method Time Dimension Topical Scope Purpose of Study Research Design Descriptors

42 6-42 Participants’ Perceptional Awareness No deviation perceived Deviations perceived as unrelated Deviations perceived as researcher-induced

43 6-43 CategoryOptions The degree to which the research question has been crystallized Exploratory study Formal study The method of data collection Monitoring Communication Study The power of the researcher to produce effects in the variables under study Experimental Ex post facto The purpose of the study Reporting Descriptive Causal-Explanatory Causal-Predictive The time dimension Cross-sectional Longitudinal The topical scope—breadth and depth—of the study Case Statistical study The research environment Field setting Laboratory research Simulation The participants’ perceptional awareness of the research activity Actual routine Modified routine Research Design Descriptors

44 6-44 Key Terms Asymmetrical relationship Case study Causal study Causation Children’s panels Communication study Control Control group Correlation Cross-sectional study Descriptive study Ethnographic research Ex post facto design Experience Experiment Exploratory study Field conditions Focus group Formal study

45 6-45 Key Terms (cont.) Individual depth interview Intranet Laboratory conditions Longitudinal study Matching Monitoring Primary data Qualitative techniques Random assignment Reciprocal relationship Research design Secondary data Simulation Statistical study Symmetrical relationship


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