3Matter Matter is anything that has a mass and volume. Has a certain weight and takes up space.Matter exists in one of three states or phases:SolidLiquidGasMatter has a number of properties, both characteristic and non-characteristic.
4Non-characteristic Properties Any property that is NOT unique to a specific type of matter.These properties help to determine an unknown substance, but cannot precisely identify it.MassVolumeTemperatureAcidity / AlkalinityColourEtc.
5Characteristic Physical Properties Any property that is unique to a specific type of matter. That is, we can precisely identify an unknown substance using these properties.Melting point: H₂O is the only matter that melts at 0°CBoiling point: H₂O is the only matter that boils at 100°CDensity: mass per unit of volume.Solubility: Maximum amount of solute dissolved in a solvent.Note: Melting point and boiling point were covered in Cycle One. Density and solubility are new this year – more info on the next slides.
6Density Why do some objects float and others don’t? Density! Definition: Mass per unit of volume.Unit: g/cm³ or kg/m³ if the object is especially large.Instruments: balance, (for mass), graduated cylinder, (for volume), calculator, (to divide mass by volume).How to calculate: Find the mass. Divide by the volume. m/V
7SolubilitySome substances are soluble in others. This means that they will dissolve.Definition: The maximum amount of solute that can be dissolved in a solvent.Unit: g/L often, but there are others as well. %m/V, %V/V, %m/m
9Review from Cycle OneMixtures are any type of matter that contains at least two substances. This means there are two types of particles that can be separated by a physical process. Air, milk and granite are examples of mixtures.Pure substances are any type of matter made up of one substance, that is, one type of particle. They can only be separated by a chemical process. Water and salt are examples.
10Atoms and MoleculesMatterPure SubstancesMixtures / SolutionsCompoundsElementsHeterogeneousHomogenousColloidsSolutions
11…A heterogeneous mixture is made up of two substances that are distinguishable to the naked eye. Granite, a $2 coin and vegetable soup are examples.A homogeneous mixture is made up of two substances, but the they are uniformly mixed and therefore the particles are indistinguishable to the naked eye. Milk and mayonnaise are examples. There are two types of homogeneous mixtures:ColloidsSolutions
12ColloidsColloids are homogeneous mixtures in which, when observed with a magnifying glass or a microscope, the various particles are evident.When milk or mayonnaise are observed under a microscope, their fat particles are easily distinguished from their water particles.When blood is observed, the various blood cells, platelets and plasma are seen.
14SolutionsA solution is a homogeneous mixture whose parts are not distinguishable, even with a microscope or magnifying glass. Generally, solutions are transparent.Apple juice is made of sugars and other substances which are dissolved in water. A ten-karat gold ring is made of silver and copper, dissolved in gold.The substance that is dissolved in the solute – sugars and silver and copper in the examples. There is usually less of a solute.The substance that dissolves the solute is the solvent – water and gold in the previous examples. There is usually more of a solvent.
15… We have already looked at many solutions found in the human body. SoluteSolventUrineUrea, saltsWaterSweatSaltsTearsLymphOxygen, carbon dioxide, salts
16Phases of solution substances (Solute + Solvent Solution) Gas + Gas gas solutionOxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapour, argon, etc.NitrogenAirGas + Liquid liquid solutionCarbon dioxideWaterCarbonated waterLiquid + Liquid liquid solutionAlcohol, aromatic substancesWineSolid + Liquid Liquid solutionSaltSalt waterSolid + Solid Solid solutionCarbonIronSteelThe phase of matter of the SOLVENT will determine the phase of matter of the solution itself.
17Properties of Solutions Solutions have many properties, both characteristic and non-characteristic, (see earlier in this package).Solutions have a few other properties that only apply to solutions. This is how solutions are distinguished from each other.ConcentrationDilutionSolubility
18ConcentrationThe concentration of a solution is the quantity of dissolved solute in a given quantity of solution.Concentration is determined by calculating:C = m / VWhere C is Concentration in g/L, m is mass of the solute in g, and V is volume of the solution in L.
19…A solution is said to be concentrated when it contains a large amount of solute.This would be like adding an extra spoonful of Kool-Aid than the recipe calls for. You drink would be darker and more sugary.So, in order to increase the concentration of a solution, simply add more solute.
20DilutionDilution is a lab technique that involves decreasing the concentration of a solution by adding more solvent.Adding more of the solvent will dilute your solution.Examples: Adding water to frozen juice concentrate to make juice.
22Solute varies, solvent costant Least concentratedLess concentratedMost concentrated
23SolubilityThere is a limit to the amount of solute that can be added to a solvent. The maximum amount refers to solubility.UnsaturatedIf the solution contains less than the maximum amount of solute.SaturatedIf the solution contains the maximum amount of solute.SupersaturatedIf the solution contains more than the maximum amount of solute.
24Solubility depends on many factors: Nature of the solventTemperatureNature of the Solvent:Some solutes do not dissolve well or at all in certain solvents, so it is important to know the solvent.Salt dissolves easily in water, but not in oil – hydrophilic.Substances that dissolve easily in oils are called lipophilic.
25Gases, however, become less soluble when temperature increases. The solubility of many substances, particularly solids, increases as temperature increases.This is why it is easier to make juice with warm water than cold.Gases, however, become less soluble when temperature increases.This is why fish populations are affected during summer heat waves – less oxygen in lakes.A warm can of soft drink releases more carbon dioxide when opened than a cold one.