Presentation on theme: "Welcome to Arkansas History"— Presentation transcript:
1Welcome to Arkansas History Chapter 02- The First People
2Bell Work Agenda: The First People Homework: read pages and complete the reading guideObjective: Students will examine the earliest inhabitants of Arkansas.Put your agenda in the agenda book.Format your Bell Work and be ready to take notes.Make sure you have an Arkansas History book on your desk.Be ready to learn.
10Paleo People Nomads – people who wandered from place to place. Hunted large animalsMammothMastodons, etc…Traveled in small family groupsMigrated into the Arkansas area around 9,500 B.C.
11The Dalton Culture Emerged toward the end of the Paleo Period. More advancedThe Dalton Point – distinctive spear pointThe adz – chisel like stone toolWarming weather and changing landscapeLarge animals began to die outTrees began to replace prairies
12The Sloan Site Found near Crowley’s Ridge Many Dalton artifacts Spear points, knife blades, adz, & scrapersPaleo CemeteryOldest documented cemetery in the United States.
13Archaic Period (8,000 – 500 B.C.) Ancient prairies change to forest Temperatures riseMelting ice from the ice age create new rivers that form the various features of Arkansas.Smaller game animals begin to replace larger animals (deer, elk, squirrels, rabbits, etc…)
14Archaic Indians Many ice age animals go extinct. Hunt smaller game animalsGathering nuts and berries(hunter-gatherers)Traveled shorter distancesUsed a “base camp.”Maximum forest efficiency – wasting little of plant and animals
15Archaic Indians Traded with other people. Began to grow sunflower seeds, squash, & barely.Dug pits for storing food.Fished rivers and streamsFish hooks made from bone with small stones used as weights
16Poverty Point Culture Northeast Louisiana Advanced Archaic culture Built first townEarthwork (they moved dirt)Traded with other people
17Important New Tools Handmade tools Butchering Making jewelry Stones for grinding foodAnvilsAxe heads and celts (ungrooved ax)
18benevolent - (adjective) wishing or doing good. Bell WorkAgenda: The First PeopleHomework: read pages and complete the reading guideObjective: Students will examine the earliest inhabitants of Arkansas.What is a mastodon?How did Clovis points get their name?Word of the Daybenevolent - (adjective) wishing or doing good.
19AtlatlA tool used to throw a spear farther and faster
20Making Dugout CanoesLong process using fire to create a canoe
22The Woodland Period (500 B.C. – 900 A.D.) Lived in villagesEarthen mounds (mound builders)Increased agriculture (barely, corn, & squash)Hunters traveled less often and less distanceTraded with other peopleMaking and firing clay vesselsRock artRituals – important ceremonies
23The Bow and Arrow became an Important War Tool (also used for hunting)
24Building Mounds Influenced by the Hopewell Indians to the north. Ritual & Burial Mounds(the Hopewell traveled and traded over a large area, their artifacts have been found far away from their home area.)
25The Plum Bayou CultureMound builders who lived in Arkansas near the end of the Woodland Period.Built 18 mounds (only 2 survive today) near Scott, Arkansas50 feet highTraded with people as far away as FloridaStargazers or astronomers(mounds originally thought to be Aztec)
26The Mississippian Period ( 900 – 1541 A.D.) Strong thriving communitiesAgriculture and tradeUnderground storage of foodUsed stone axes and hoes to clear fields (also used fire)Strong leaders or chiefsLarge villagesParkin Culture – believe to be larges Indian village
27The Mississippian Period ( 900 – 1541 A.D.) Europeans arriveCasqui – large village in Delta (Parkin site)Hernando de Soto may have visited the siteMississippian culture disappears after the arrival of EuropeansDisease – possible causeMaking Salt – Indians in southwest Arkansas boiled salty water to remove salt, used in food and traded with other people.
28Arkansas Historic Indians (1673-Present) European visitors found distinct Indian nations.Unique cultureOwn languageGovernmentMany records kept by explorers
30The CaddosFirst discovered by the Spanish when they entered southwest ArkansasOriginated during the Mississippian PeriodExcellent farmersGrew corn, beans, squashes, watermelons, pumpkins, tobacco, and sunflowers.Hunting and Fishingsmall game like rabbits and fishedGatheredNuts, roots, seeds, and berries
31The Caddos Bow and arrow Animal skins, furs, bear oil, and salt. Made from Osage orange or boisd’ arc treesUsed for hunting or traded with other peopleAnimal skins, furs, bear oil, and salt.Friendly people who traded with othersBeautiful pottery – used to store food or in rituals.Bowls, bottles, jars, platters, or effigy potsEffigy pots were sometimes shaped like human heads.
32The Caddos Communities were led by a chief Spiritual leaders or priest Approved marriagesConducted ceremoniesWelcomed visitorsWorked with other leaders to make important decisionsSpiritual leaders or priestConducted religious ceremonies and rituals in sacred buildings or on temple mounds
33The Caddos Society organized around family units called farmsteads. Many different buildings for living, working, and storage.Men and women were painted or tattooed, especially womenMen wore a breechcloth and women wore deerskin skirts.Typically small people (men about 5’6” and women 5’ or less.Disease and warfare drove the Caddo out of Arkansas and into what would be Indian Territory in Oklahoma. Today they their tribal center is in Binger, Oklahoma.
34persevere - (verb) to continue despite difficulties. Bell WorkAgenda: The First PeopleHomework: noneObjective: Students will examine the earliest inhabitants of Arkansas.How many major Indian tribes lived in Arkansas?________ replace hunting as a major source of food over time.Word of the Daypersevere - (verb) to continue despite difficulties.
35The Quapaws Lived in the Delta Region Likely descendants of the Mississippian Indians. (maybe descendants of Indians from Ohio who traveled down the Mississippi River.Quapaw means “downstream people.”Some tribes and explorers called them “Arkansas”Handsome, friendly, and Peaceful people.Tall, large, & well made people
36The Quapaws Lived in villages, centered around a main plaza. “Long Houses” were home to several familiesExcellent farmers like the CaddoPlanted fruit trees imported by the Europeans.Trades with French and SpanishMade beautiful pottery
37The Quapaws Women took care of the children. Women prepared food. Women grew crops.Men were good at making dugout canoes.Men served as religious and political leaders.Men also hunted, fished, and went to war.
38The Quapaws Visited the Arkansas Post established by the Europeans. Some Quapaw lived at the post.Forced out and into Indian Territory in the 1830’s.Tribal Center located near Binger, Oklahoma.
39Legend of the Arkansas Name Page 46 in textbook…
40The Osages Primarily lived Missouri near the Missouri and Osage River. Hunted and traded in Northwest ArkansasOsage hunger were highly skilledEach person had an important role during the yearly hunts.Women skinned the animals, cleaned and dried the meat.Raised and stored crops for the winter months.
41The Osages Fought with Caddo and Quapaw over hunting territory. Strength and skills made the good warriorsOsage means “the neutral,” but they called themselves “Children of the Middle Waters.”Each person belonged to one of two clans, “The Earth People” or “The Sky People.”Held village councils (elected representatives)“Little Old Men”
42The OsagesForced out in the early 1800’s and settled in southeastern Kansas.Today, many of the Osage live near Pawhuska, Oklahoma.
43The Tunicas and KoroasEncountered de Soto when he traveled down the Mississippi River in the 1500s.Lived in large areas on both sides of the river.Historians believe de Soto visited Quizquiz (keys-key) in northwestern Mississippi.Unlike other tribes, the men took care of the crops.Men also hunted and gathered.Traded with other tribes
44The Tunicas and Koroas Men and women were tattooed Villages surrounded a main plazaCircular houses with grass-thatched dome roof.Decorated with “plates of shining copper.”Most disappeared by 1700s, likely from disease.Survivors joined other tribes or move south.Some Tunica moved south and joined the Biloxi Indians near Marksveille, Louisiana. Their descendants live there today.
45Ways of Life Many Native American people share common beliefs. Animism – belief that everything has a spirit, including, plants, animals, people, lightning, etc…Great Spirit and other gods.Creation StoriesFirst humans came out of the underworld“The place of crying” – place were life came out of the underworld, closed after the wolf came out leaving other creatures in the underworld.
46Ways of LifeMany believed that when they died, they went back to the underworld.Priest or religious leaders would perform ceremonies to seek favor with the gods, hoping for rain or what ever was needed.
47Chiefdoms Native societies adopted the practice of “chiefdoms.” Power was shared by a group of leadersOne leader may have been charge of war and hunting while another may have been in charge of spiritual matters.Leaders had lengthy discussions to make major decisions
48Women Had a great deal of power and influence Did most of the work Native American societies were “matriarchal systems.”Property inherited through the female line rather then the father.Women owned the houses.Could divorce their husbands and always kept the kids.All they had to do was place the man’s belongings outside their home.
49Arkansas’s Cherokee Immigrants Forced into Arkansas near the end of 1770s.Settled in eastern part of state, then moved into the “Arkansas River Valley.”Adopted many European ways because of their early interaction with colonist in the east.FarmersRaised cattleEstablished schoolsBuilt homes
50Arkansas’s Cherokee Immigrants Worked and dressed like other settlers but still tried to hang onto Native American culture.Green Corn CeremonyCelebrated first corn crops in June and July
51Preserving Their Way of Life Today Arkansas is home to many Native Americans.They work hard to preserve heritage.They work hard to protect Native American sites (mounds and burial grounds).Native Americans in Arkansas come form many tribes, including those discussed in this unit, along with others.