Presentation on theme: "JAPAN. JAPAN FACTS At 145,833 square miles, Japan is slightly smaller than California. Population: 126,660,000 (2013 est.) California’s population: 38,041,430."— Presentation transcript:
JAPAN FACTS At 145,833 square miles, Japan is slightly smaller than California. Population: 126,660,000 (2013 est.) California’s population: 38,041,430 (2013) Ethnic groups: Japanese 98.5%, Koreans 0.5%, Chinese 0.4%, other 0.6%. Shintoism 83.9%, Buddhism 71.4%, Christianity 2%, other 7.8% Note: exceeds 100% because many people belong to both Shintoism and Buddhism (2005)
Nippon or Nihon LAND OF THE RISING SUN “sun” “origin” the sun’s origin
The Creation of Japan It is told in both the Kojiki (Record of Ancient Matters), dated 712 C.E., and in the Nihongi (Chronicles of Japan), dated 720 C.E.
The Creation of Japan The first gods summoned two divine beings into existence, the male Izanagi and the female Izanami, and charged them with creating the first land. To help them do this, Izanagi and Izanami were given a spear decorated with jewels, named Amenonuhoko (heavenly spear).
Izanagi and Izanami The two deities then went to the bridge between heaven and earth, Amenoukihashi (floating bridge of heaven), and churned the sea below with the spear. When drops of salty water fell from the spear, they formed into the island Onogoro (self-forming). They descended from the bridge of heaven and made their home on the island.
The Creation of Japan This mythical island, supposedly located somewhere off the northeastern coast of today’s Shikoku, became Izanagi’s and Izanami’s home. The Meoto-Iwa, or Wedded Rocks, Shima Peninsula. Legend holds that the spirits of Izanagi and Izanami are housed in the rocks, which are connected to one another by a straw rope.
The Three Treasures Sanshu no Jingi “Three Sacred Treasures,” also known as the Three Sacred Treasures of Japan. 三種の神器 The treasures represent the three primary virtues: wisdom (the mirror) valor (the sword) benevolence (the jewel)
Legend of the Three Treasures According to legend, Amaterasu, the sun goddess, hid in a cave from her brother Susanoo, thus plunging the world into darkness. Cave at Ama-no-Iwato Shrine where Amaterasu hid
Legend of the Three Treasures The goddess Ama-no-Uzume hung the mirror and jewels outside the cave to lure her out of the cave, at which point she saw her own reflection and was startled enough that the gods could pull her out of the cave. Utagawa Kunisada ( ). Amaterasu Emerges from the Light. (colored woodcut, no date).
Legend of the Three Treasures Susanoo later presented in apology to Amaterasu the sword, Kusanagi, which he had obtained from the stomach of an eight- headed serpent, Orochi.
The Mirror The mirror Yata no kagami ( 八咫鏡 ) Represents the virtue of wisdom. The mirror is located in the Ise Shrine in Mie prefecture.
Ise Shrine Mie Prefecture
The Sword The sword, Kusanagi ( 草薙剣 ), or possibly a replica of the original. Represents the virtue of valor. The sword is located at Atsuta Shrine in Nagoya.
Atsuta Shrine Nagoya
The Jewel The jewel or necklace of jewels, Yasakani no magatama ( 八尺瓊曲玉 ) Represents the virtue of benevolence. The jewel is located at Kokyo (the Japanese Imperial Palace) in Tokyo.
Imperial Palace Tokyo
The Sacred Treasures Today Since 690, the presentation of these items to the Emperor by the priests at the shrine are a central part of the imperial enthronement ceremony. This ceremony is not public, and these items are by tradition only seen by the emperor and certain priests.
Jimmu Tenno In Japanese mythology, Jimmu is the first Emperor and founder of the imperial dynasty. Jimmu is a Chinese word and means "divine valor, or warrior." Tenno means “heavenly” and in Japanese means “emperor.” The Emperor's Japanese name consists of "kami" (god), "Yamato" (the region.Jimmu conquered), and Ihare (the name of a district in Yamato). His real name was Kamuyamato Iwarebiko 神武天皇
Emperor Jimmu Great-great-grandson of the sun goddess Amaterasu. 660 BC Becomes Japan's first emperor Direct descendant of the gods; Japanese emperors are related to the gods.
Yamato Jimmu’s area of conquest 660 BC
Emperor Akihito In 1989, he became the 125th emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession. He is the world's only reigning emperor. Emperor Akihito's reign bears the name "Heisei" ( 平成 ), which means “achievement of universal peace” Emperor Akihito and Empress Michiko Chrysanthemum National and Imperial Seal of Japan. 明仁
SHINTOISM Shinto, “the way of the gods” Polytheistic – belief in many gods Around 500 B.C. No founder No sacred scriptures No propaganda or preaching
KAMI “Shinto gods” They are sacred spirits which take the form of things and concepts important to life, such as wind, rain, mountains, trees, rivers and fertility. Humans become kami after they die and are revered by their families as ancestral kami. The kami of extraordinary people are even enshrined at some shrines. The Sun Goddess Amaterasu is considered Shinto's most important kami.
SHINTOISM There is no absolute right and wrong, and nobody is perfect. Shinto is an optimistic faith, as humans are thought to be fundamentally good, and evil is believed to be caused by evil spirits. Consequently, the purpose of most Shinto rituals is to keep away evil spirits by purification, prayers and offerings to the kami.
SHINTO SHRINES Shinto shrines are the places of worship and the homes of kami. There are more than 80,000 Shinto shrines in Japan.
TORII (GATE) A torii is a wooden gate without a door, often painted red. The torii marks the gateway between the physical and spiritual worlds, and is often the only indication that one is entering a shrine.
KOMAINU “Korean dog” A pair of lion-like guardian figures placed at each side of a shrine entrance. One with an open mouth and one with a closed mouth. Believed to ward off evil spirits.
SHINTO FESTIVALS Most shrines celebrate festivals (matsuri) regularly in order to show the kami the outside world. TAIKO DRUMS
DOLL’S FESTIVAL "Hinamatsuri or Doll's Festival" March 3rd. Celebration for a young girl's growth and happiness.
TANGO NO SEKKU Boys Day Celebration for the healthy growth and development of young boys. Families raise the carp-shaped Koinobori flags, one for each boy.
SHINTOISM AND BUDDHISM Buddhism found to be compatible Practice Shinto, adopt Buddhism Many Buddhists viewed the kami as manifestations of Buddhas. A large number of wedding ceremonies are held in Shinto style. Death, however, is considered a source of impurity, and is left to Buddhism to deal with. Consequently, there are virtually no Shinto cemeteries, and most funerals are held in Buddhist style.
AD 572 Prince Shotoku born Spread Buddhism throughout Japan by erecting temples and statues Religious leader and great statesman Became regent at 21; brought many teachers from China and Korea
Emperors Lose Power Emperors more concern with religion, literature, and art Families concern for matters of war and power For serving the emperor, families rewarded with control and tax of farmers and land owners Wars between families become frequent, development of skilled warriors
Samurai - "those who serves" Bushido, code of the samurai Honor Respect Obedience Total Loyalty to those superior
ROYALTy EMPEROR Royal family MILITARY SHOGUN Daimyos Samurais Foot soldiers COMMONERS OR PEASANTS Farmers and Artisans Merchants SOCIAL CLASS PYRAMID To be Shogun, one MUST be samurai All people belonged to a certain class, and their class was not allowed to change. Whatever level a person was born, generally remained there for life. LOYALTY
Emperor Hereditary position Highest rank with no real political power Shogun Supreme General Military leader of country Daimyo Great Lords Landowning nobility who served as provincial governors Samurai Those Who Serve Loyal military vassals and warriors Peasant Farmers and Serfs Largest group (90% of population) Artisans Merchants
FEUDALISM (Social and Economic System) Land was given to daimyos, who were usually family, friends, or loyal generals to the shogun Daimyos allowed peasants to farm the land, with peasants keeping half of what they grew. Peasant farmers were loyal to their daimyos, and the daimyos pledged their loyalty and full military support to the shogun. Samurais were loyal to their daimyos, and pledged their loyalty and support to the shogun and emperor.
SAMURAI “Those Who Serve” The way of the samurai is found in death.
SAMURAI Role of a Samurai Served his daimyo (lord/landowner) Highest of the social classes Only class to carry two swords Zen Buddhist follower
SAMURAI Code of Bushido “Way of the Warrior” Duty, honor, and obligation Loyalty, right conduct, and bravery Considerate to farmers and merchants Commit seppuku (honorable suicide)
SAMURAI Stages of Becoming a Samurai Learns to be indifferent to pain, unquestioningly loyal, and an expert in military arts Age 7 Learns to read the Four Books, 5 Classics, and 7 Texts Learns calligraphy and to write characters
SAMURAI Learns to be indifferent to pain, unquestioningly loyal, and an expert in military arts Age 12 – Training for battle Learns to use the sword Learns archery Learns horsemanship Learns other military arts
SAMURAI Age 15 – Ready for battle Continues education by reading ancient stories Displays proper conduct and manners Learns the tea ceremony and to write haiku and poetry Displays proper household management During peace served as escorts and administrators for his daimyo
Heraldry Family crest symbol known also as a mon Used as identification on belongings Daimyo’s mon on banners carried by soldiers