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Nikki Smith The BACCHUS Network. “I see no hope for our future if we depend on the frivolous youth of today, for certainly all youth are reckless beyond.

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Presentation on theme: "Nikki Smith The BACCHUS Network. “I see no hope for our future if we depend on the frivolous youth of today, for certainly all youth are reckless beyond."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nikki Smith The BACCHUS Network

2 “I see no hope for our future if we depend on the frivolous youth of today, for certainly all youth are reckless beyond words. When I was a boy we were taught to be discreet and respectful of elders, but the present youth are exceedingly wise and impatient of restraint.” Aristotle

3 “The young are permanently in a state resembling intoxication”.

4 Before Brain uses 20% of body’s energy; constitutes 2% of body weight By age 6, the brain is 95% of it’s adult size In the first 18 months of life, the brain undergoes a rapid process of overproduction, paring, and reorganization of brain cells Now we know: A second wave of Exuberance occurs between the ages of 10 and 13 The brain is highly receptive to new info and primed to acquire new skills This process peaks around 11 or 12 years old but continues into the mid-20s *Based on the research of Dr. Jay Giedd, National Institute of Mental Health (2004)*

5 Functional MRI scans make viewing the inner workings of the brain possible NIH started using fMRI’s to research the adolescent brain in 1991 fMRI’s use Radio Waves to detect changes in blood flow in the brain Anatomical and a functional view of the brain. *NIH involved in a 7 year brain scan study of children 2 weeks to 21 years old

6 Copyright ©2004 by the National Academy of Sciences Gogtay, Giedd, et al. (2004) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 8174-8179 Brain Maturation from Ages 5 to 20

7 PBS--Frontline: Inside the Teenage Brain Frontal Cortex—”CEO” *Planning, Strategizing, Logic, Judgment Amygdala *Emotional and gut responses; fear and anger *Used more in Adolescents Cerebelleum *Coordinates muscles/ movement *Coordinates thinking processes Corpus Callosum *Connects Hemispheres *Creativity & Problem Solving Hippocampus *Forms Memories *Coordinates thinking processes

8 CEO or Command Center Responsible for planning, strategizing, and judgment Undergoes a major transformation during the teen years

9 *Long term studies of habitual binge-drinking youth : -Hippocampi (learning and memory) 10% smaller than non-drinkers -Memory recall—10% less than adult drinkers -Frontal lobes less active than adults during cognitive tasks -Overabundance of calcium causes cell death Ronald Dahl, U of Pittsburgh Med school (2003) These SPECT images show functional activity levels in the brain of a healthy nondrinker (left), and that of a sober 21-year- old with a four-year history of heavy alcohol use (right). The “holes” indicate areas of reduced brain activity. Dr. Daniel Amen;

10 Heavy youth smokers 15x greater risk of developing panic attacks as adults Nicotine linked to 10 % smaller hippocampus Nicotine linked to lower sertonin levels and depression Nicotine linked to increased infections and weakened immune systems Columbia U-New York State Psychiatric Institute Study (2000)

11 Deborah Yurgelun Todd McLean Hospital Belmont, Mass (2004 ) Adolescents use the Amydala (fight or flight response) rather than the Frontal Cortex (used by older adults) to read emotions

12 Frontal Lobe Immaturity Could Translate Into: 1. Poor judgment and difficulty thinking through consequences of behavior 3. Impulsive and emotional responses rather than logical and practical ones 4. Miscommunication with peers and adults—they miss subtle social cues, misinterpret expectations, and misread facial expressions. Phineas Gage 1848 2. Increased risk-taking; inappropriate actions not as inhibited as in adults

13 Based on the Research of Dr. Mary Carskadon, Brown University Sleep Laboratory The average college student need and young adults requires 6-8 hours of sleep per night. Most get 5 or less. During adolescence there is a shift in their circadian rhythm or biological clock Melatonin levels peak around 11 p.m. to midnight. Ideal wake up time for an adolescent would be around 9 or 10 a.m. The result:: the vast majority of students come to class sleep- deprived

14 *Purpose of sleep appears at least in part to be to review/rehearse things learned during the day. * Carskadon (Brown) and Wolfson (Holy Cross) sleep study (2000) *Getting a good night of sleep after an important learning experience is critical to retention of material and learning (See Time “The New Science of Sleep” Dec. 2004) *Ron Dahl (U of Pittsburg) and Eve Van Cauter (U of Chicago) study (2001) Sleep deprived youth experienced…. --elevated levels of the stress hormone cortisol (high bp) --impaired ability to process glucose (obesity and type 2 diabetes) --emotions less controlled and more exaggerated --increased depression and anxiety

15 Drivers age 25 and younger cause 50% + of Drowsy Driving Crashes (NHTSA 2002 ) 1. Low Grades and academic Performance—learning and memory adversely affected 2. Negative Moods 3. Difficulty controlling emotional responses 4. ADHD like symptoms 5. Increased abuse of nicotine, caffeine, alcohol, and other substances (Ritalin?) Carskadon (1998)

16 Dopamine—brain chemical that creates a sense of well being During adolescence dopamine levels decrease in the nucleus accumbens (smaller subcortical area involved in pleasure response). ”Adolescents have a built in urge to live on the edge,to seek thrills, to do things that will enhance chances of survival within the peer group.” Linda Spear—SUNY-Binghamton (2003) High levels of stress reduces dopamine levels. Addictive drugs increase dopamine levels and can damage the nucleus accumbens

17 Genetics —”risk takers” have a particular type of gene that allows the brain to respond differently to dopamine. Dopamine D4 receptor is slightly longer in risk takers than in timid people Highest risk takers 10x more likely to take drugs Adolescent Rhesus monkey studies— risk is evolutionary necessity Adolescent Rat studies—novelty and dopamine (Michael Bardo U of Kentucky 2004)

18 As the adolescent brain is reconfigured it is more susceptible to long lasting damage of drugs, alcohol, and negative experiences. Unfortunately, the brain is most vulnerable at a time when they are most inclined to take risks and to act impulsively…” (Jay Giedd, NIH 2004)

19 We Know That Despite Their Many Differences, most Abused Substances Enhance the Dopamine and Serotonin Pathways We Know That Despite Their Many Differences, most Abused Substances Enhance the Dopamine and Serotonin Pathways

20 Their Brains have been Re-Wired by Drug Use Their Brains have been Re-Wired by Drug Use Because…


22 Prevention strategies may focus on human emotional, social and moral development

23 Emotional Have clear expectations for behavior, and work to implement appropriate and consistent consequences Provide training on managing stress and anxiety. Teach emotional management strategies for dealing with stressful situations Reinforce appropriate behavior Allow training and opportunities for assertive communication, which allows expression of one’s feelings, needs, and desires

24 Social Teach life and social skills, such as communication, goal setting, problem-solving techniques, stress management, refusal skills, and decision-making skills Work with school to provide parental training on involvement to provide knowledge about the university system and setting Social Norming

25 Moral Provide opportunities for students to engage in healthy discussions that question and examine the issues of underage drinking or other high risk behaviors Provide self-management skills for self-control such as refusal skills,goal-setting, and planning for the future Teach decision making based on intrinsic motivation rather than external punishments or consequences

26 “Learning from experience” may not take place until underlying brain structures are in place. Function as their frontal lobes: help them decipher emotions; don’t assume they get it. Encourage Sleep Encourage stress reduction. Look at risk taking as necessary and normal; help students find safe ways to experiment and take risks.

27 References Giedd, J. (1999). Brain development during childhood and adolescence: A longitudinal MRI study. Nature Neuroscience, 2(10), 861-63. Strauch, B. (2003). Primal Teen. Random House: New York. PBS Frontline (2003). Inside the Teenage Brain. Time Magazine (December 2004). The new science of sleep. Wolfson, A.; Carskadon, M. (1998). Sleep schedules and daytime functioning in adolescents. Child Development, 69(4), 875-87. Hine, T. (1999). Rise and Fall of the American Teenager. Avon Books: New York. Carskadon, M. (2000). Adolescent sleep needs and patterns: Research report and resource guide. Washington, DC: National Sleep Foundation. YMCA USA; Dartmouth Medical School; Institute for American Values. (2003). Hardwired to connect: Summary of the commission on children at risk’s report

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