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Korea’s Green Growth Controversy and SD Policies of Seoul 2012. 4 Wang-Jin Seo.

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Presentation on theme: "Korea’s Green Growth Controversy and SD Policies of Seoul 2012. 4 Wang-Jin Seo."— Presentation transcript:

1 Korea’s Green Growth Controversy and SD Policies of Seoul Wang-Jin Seo

2 2 Seoul’s Climate Change Action Green Growth Controversy in Korea Seoul’s Challenges toward SD Sustainable Development (SD) and Seoul’s Sustainable Energy Action: Contents Green Growth in Korea “Shut Down One Nuclear Power Plant”

3 3 SD and Green Growth in Korea

4 From SD to Green Growth in Korea Participation into the UNCED in Rio (1992) Participation into UNCSD annually since 1993 Establishment of ‘Local Agenda 21’ by Local Governments in accordance with the ‘Agenda 21’ recommendations President Kim Dae-jung announced ‘Sustainable Development’ as the basis of national governance (2000) ‘Presidential Commission on Sustainable Development (PCSD)’ in which government, businesses and civil groups participate organized (2000) 4

5 From SD to Green Growth in Korea President Roh Moo-hyun reorganized PCSD focusing on resolution of social and environmental conflicts (2003) Establishment of the Framework Act on Sustainable Development (2007) President Lee Myung-bak from Grand National Party, a conservative party won presidential election in 2007 Lee Myung-bak administration declared ‘Low Carbon, Green Growth’ as a new vision and strategy for realization of ‘Sustainable Development’ (2008) 5

6 Efficient greenhouse gas reduction Realization of global green growth leader Green innovation in daily lives Construction of green land & transportation Infrastructure development for green economy Promotion of energy independence Improvement of climate change adaptation capacity Green technology development Fostering green industry Advancement of industrial structure Improvement of quality of life Improvement of quality of life Vision of Low-carbon Green Growth

7  (’09) Mid-term goal setting→ (’10~) Goal management Nation’s GHG reduction goal setting and management GHG  North Korea’s afforestation area : (’09)  50,000 ha (’13) Support on forest recovery in North Korea 1  Carbon storage of the forest : (’09)1,452  (’13)1,613 million tCO2 Promotion of carbon cycle (Carbon-3R) and carbon sink Afforestingsea forest development  GHG information management system Carbon information disclosure and management Financial investment plan (KRW trillion) Job creation (x 10,000 jobs) ’09~’13 Experts such as greenhouse gas inspection & certification expert green consultant 7.8 ‘ ’10~ ‘ ’12~‘ % Growth rate Efficient greenhouse gas reduction Top 5 Policy Directions and Promotion Plans

8  Elimination of low-efficiency equipment : No more incandescent lamp by 2013  Total energy use management system(’10)  Expansion of intelligent electricity network: Designation of test-bed city (2011) Energy efficiency and demand side management  Oil & gas self-development rates : 7.4% (2009)  20% (2013) Expansion of overseas resources development Improvement of reliability and expansion of nuclear power plant  Export of the first nuclear power plant during the project period (1 or 2 plant(s) or more)  Development of nuclear power technology (2012)  New & renewable energy use rate : (’09)2.%,  (’13)3.8%  Green Home Project : 140,000 households(2013)→1M households (2020)  Energy Town Project: 1 (2009)  14 towns (2020) Promotion of industrialization of new & renewable energy solar thermal green home wind power generation fuel cell Enhancing Energy independence 2 ’09~’13 Waste resources energy development engineers nuclear power generation engineers resources development & support engineers ‘09 ’10~ ‘11 ’12~‘13 3.6% Financial investment plan (KRW trillion) Growth rate Job creation (x 10,000 jobs)

9  Evaluation of coastal vulnerability : (’09)  (’13)800km2  Disaster response capability : (’09)40%  (’13)60% Development of marine management & preliminary disaster prevention system use of marine energydisaster prevention  National forest resources: 862 million (2009)  953 million ㎥ (2013) Improvement of the soundness of forest ecosystem  Climate change prediction & monitoring capacity : (’09)40%  (’13)80% Improvement of climate change adaptation capacity  Health management strategy (2009)  Environment-friendly agricultural products: 4.5% (2009)  10% (2013) Establishment of climate-friendly health management & food production system 3  The amount of water resources secured : (’09)186  (’13)200billion m2  Quality of four major rivers: 2 nd grade by 2012 improvement of water quality securing sufficient water The Four Major Rivers Restoration Project Development of climate change monitoring & prediction technique ’09~’13 Climate change adaptation expertswater industry engineers % ‘09’10~‘11’12~‘ Financial investment plan (KRW trillion) Growth rate Job creation (x 10,000 jobs)

10 *TCS: Testing, Certification, Standard Commercialization of core green technologies  Commercialization of LED, hybrid vehicle, advanced light-water reactor and fuel cell by 2012  Increase of green technology R&D investments: (2009) 16%  (2013) 20% Expansion of green R&D investments Development of green technology as a growth engine 4 Improvement of Green IT: Green of IT, Green by IT  Development & export of the world’s top three green IT products (Green PC, TV and Server) (2012) ’09~’13 Plant engineering, technology commercialization & manufacturing, facilities & construction workers %  Green technology engineers: 20,000 (2009)  37,000 engineers (2013)  Establishment of East Asia Green Technology Standard Council (2013) Fostering green technology experts and international cooperation  Establishment of world-class green technology information system “Green TCS* System” Expansion of green technology & infrastructure ‘09’10~‘11’12~‘13 Financial investment plan (KRW trillion) Growth rate Job creation (x 10,000 jobs)

11 Promotion and fostering of green industry 5  Greening core nine industries (petrochemical, steel, etc.)  Percentage of green export: 10% (2009)  15% (2013) Greening core industries and expansion of green business Expansion of green industrial complexes  No. of green industry complexes: 5(2009)  10(2013) (Waste recycling, high-efficiency facilities & equipment, IT-based management system, etc.) Green partnership between enterprises – improvement of green capacity for small & mid-size enterprises Green Partner  No. of businesses participating in the green partnership : 685(2009)  1,500(2013) Development of resources-recycling economy & promotion of urban mining  Resource recycling rates: 15% (2009)  17% (2013)  Support on urban mining-related R&D: KRW 9 billion (2009)  KRW 37.5 billion (2013) ’09~’13 Green diagnosis consultant green growth expert for small & mid-sized enterprise % 0.8 ‘09’10~‘11’12~‘13 Financial investment plan (KRW trillion) Growth rate Job creation (x 10,000 jobs)

12 12 Green Growth Controversy in Korea

13 Low-carbon Green Growth and Nuclear Power Renaissance  Expansion of nuclear power generations  Percentage of nuclear power among total electricity: 35.5%(2007)  59.0%(2030) Steady growth with m inimization of energy consumption Reduction of CO2 emissions even with same energy use Development of ‘green energy’ into n ew growth engine Shift to low-energy consumption industry Improvement of energy efficiency Setting energy-saving goals in manufacture and buildings Expansion of new and renewable energy Expansion of clean energy use including nuclear energy Reduction of CO2 emissions Expansion of green technology R&D investment Fostering green industry including new and renewable energy

14 Nuclear power-dependent structure  Aggressive nuclear power expansion policy  A total of 21 nuclear reactors in operation (2011)  13 reactors to be constructed additionally by 2024  Highest nuclear power density: 182.2kW/km2 (Japan: 127.2kW/km2)  Concentration of power generation facility investments in nuclear power plants Category2011~2024Percentage Nuclear powerKRW trillion 68% CoalKRW trillion23% LNGKRW trillion9% Pumping-upKRW 51.3 billion0% TotalKRW trillion 100%

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16 Ring of Nuclear and Korea  No. of nuclear reactors in China: 228 (13: In operation, 27: Under construction, 188: Under review for additional construction)  No. of nuclear reactors in Japan: 69 (construction plan included)

17 The Four Rivers Project  Goals To secure abundant water resources against potential water scarcity; To implement a comprehensive flood control system; To improve water quality and restore the ecosystems; and To create multi-use open spaces for People  Project scopes Total 170 construction zones 16 movable weirs Dredging : total 450 million m3 17

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23 23 Seoul’s Challenges toward SD

24 , (1960) 46 (1980)(2000)(2010)(1975)(1980)(1990)(2010)(1960)(1980)(1990)(2010) City of Seoul is Capital of Korea for 600 years ; political, economic and cultural center Facing environmental problems caused by rapid urbanization such as increasing population, houses, and cars Affected by climate change challenges caused by intensifying global warming Population (10K)No. of houses (10K) No. of registered cars (10K)

25 25 Seoul is surrounded by high mountains – difficult to diffuse air Affected by various air polluting factors such as increasing number of cars and yellow dust phenomenon Lower air pollution by implementing projects such as increasing use of clean fuel and promoting low pollution for diesel cars Air Quality Air Quality 25 Sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), carbon monoxide (CO) level reached advanced nations’ level PM10 ( ㎍ / ㎥ ) Yellow Dust Max. Concentration ( ㎍ / ㎥ ) ㎍ / ㎥ No. of monitored days 623 ㎍ / ㎥ 1,355 ㎍ / ㎥ 1,059 ㎍ / ㎥ Particulate matter (PM 10 ) level is higher than that of advanced nations 2,941 ㎍ / ㎥ ㎍ / ㎥ ㎍ / ㎥

26 26 Green axis and forests are destroyed in the process of urbanization – house and road construction Expanded green space by increasing parks and green space continuously and conserving forests Not enough green parks in community area TorontoBerlinLondonSeoulParis New York TokyoBeijing ㎡ /capita Park space per capita Parks in Seoul ㎢ Parks in Seoul (2009) Neighborhood Parks ㎢ (27%) Natural Parks ㎢ (62%) Other Parks ㎢ (11%) Green Park Green Park

27 27 * Buildings (68.2%) and transportation (23.6%) account for over 90% of annual energy consumption (45,761K ton CO 2 e) 가정 · 상 업 (56.7%) 수송 (24.9%) GHG Emissions (’08) : Emissions in Seoul is 50,383K ton CO 2 e (1990 baseline year: emission 44,983K ton CO 2 e), 5,400K ton CO 2 e (12.0%) increase compared to 1990 level Buildings and transportation account for more than 80% of GHG emissions in Seoul – Building: 61.4%, Transportation: 21.4%, Industry: 10.8%, Waste: 6.4% Greenhouse Gases Greenhouse Gases

28 28 Seoul’s Climate Change Action

29 29 Set climate change visions for 2030 [Eco-Friendly Energy Declaration(‘07.4) set goals for 2020] Announced 2030 Green Design Seoul (‘09.7) Set aggressive GHG reduction goals, similar to those of Annex 1 countries Provide visions for low carbon, low energy city, responding to climate change 2000 Baseline yr 2030 Reduce energy consumption Increase renewable energy use 2030 Reduce GHG emissions 0.6% 40% 20% 1990 Baseline yr % 15% 10% Seoul GHG reduction goal : 40% reduction by 2030 (1990 baseline year) Energy consumption : 20% reduction by 2030 (2000 baseline year) Renewable energy use : 20% increase by 2030 Long term Climate Change & GHG Reduction Goals 29

30 30  Set Climate Change Ordinance (‘08.9) Stipulate Seoul’s GHG reduction goals Apply Seoul Green Architecture Standard  Climate Change Fund / Secured financing for stronger public support Increase financing : 64.8billion KRW (’09) ⇒ 93 billion KRW(’11) Expand beneficiary : Grant loans to GHG reduction and renewable energy projects ※ First regulation to be set in Korea without higher law Lay foundation for management of Climate Change Fund Basic ground for implementation of comprehensive measures – climate change, energy, and transportation demand management

31 31  Set ground for climate change monitoring Enhance capacity to address climate change  Build Climate Change R&D Center (Seoul Development Institute, ’09. 1) Automate weather monitoring system (’09. 1) : Install 26 AWS (Automatic Weather System) Enhance climate change and energy related research, improve policy development capacity Produce Seoul Climate Change Map (’06~ ’08) Create emissions database – Seoul GHG inventory (’09) Use as basic data to establish climate change plans and eco-friendly urban management policies AWS Update database & establish “GHG management system” (’11.5)

32 32 Implementation directions of climate change action plans Save energy, use renewable energy, increase clean fuel and collective energy supply Improve building energy efficiency, promote energy saving and eco-friendly design & maintenance Reduce waste generation, encourage recycling, co-use resource recovery facility Improve public transportation system, deliver eco-friendly green cars, install bicycle facilities Greening projects, stream & ecosystem restoration projects Energy Building Waste Transportation Improving Climate Prepare for heat wave and tropical night phenomenon, prevent contagious diseases Public Healthcare Environmental education at homes & schools, encourage citizen participation programs – Eco-mileage, CAP, etc. Citizen Participation Mitigation Adaptation Citizen Participation Water quantity and quality management, rainwater recycling Water Management Reinforce facilities to prepare for torrential rainfalls, prevent flooding Flood Control

33 33 Seoul’s Sustainable Energy Action: “Shut Down One Nuclear Power Plant”

34 Reduction of energy consumption as much as the amount of power produced by each nuclear power reactor through decrease in demand for energy and expansion of energy production Why ‘Shut Down One Nuclear Power Plant’? Low self-sufficiency rates (3.3%) Dramatic increase in demand for electricity Improvement of energy security to be prepared against electricity crisis Increase in citizens’ anxiety after Fukushima’s nuclear nightmare Necessary to prevent possible nuclear power accidents completely Severe climate changes such as global warming Necessary to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

35 Vision Goal Establishment of the ground for energy independence targeting the world climate environmental capital - Power self-sufficiency rates: 10% (2014)  25% (2020) % % ‘Shut Down One Nuclear Power Plant’ Reduction of 2 million TOE by ,000 TOE (8,720GWh) 1,250,000 TOE ‘Shut Down One Nuclear Power Plant’ Vision Electricity Petroleum and city gas * The annual power generation of Yeonggwang Nuclear Power Plant Unit 5 (the biggest nuclear power reactor in Korea, 1GWh): 8,672GWh

36 Goal Policies (77projects in six fields) Expansion of new & renewable energy production promotion building energy efficiency establishing high-efficiency transportation system creation of energy industry- related jobs restructure of urban space into energy- saving space creation of energy-saving citizens culture Elec.: 490,000 TOE (5,697GWh) City gas: 550,000 TOE Petroleum: 350,000 TOE Electricity: 260,000 TOE (3,023GWh)) Heat: 350,000 TOE Energy production 610,000 TOE Decrease in energy demand 1,390,000 TOE Shut Down One Nuclear Power Plant

37 Establishment and operation of energy foundation 10 Creation of energy-saving citizens’ culture 09 Creation of 44,000 energy industry-related jobs ,000 people participating in the car-sharing program 07 Strict design standards such as limit on energy consumption for new buildings 06 Construction of ‘Sunlight City (260MW)’ (the city itself is a huge PV power generation plant) 01 Construction of ‘Distributed Power System (320MW)’ through development of hydrogen fuel cell 02 Improvement of energy efficiency in residence, building and schools 03 Realization of ‘Smart Lighting City’ using LED (distribution of 7 million LED lights) 04 Establishment of ‘2030 Urban Master Plan’ for construction of energy- efficient urban space 05 Top 10 ‘Shut Down One Nuclear Power Plant’ projects

38 Expansion of the number of the PV Sunlight Power Generation Plants : 230MW by ,600 plants (ex: Public organizations, schools, etc.) : 130MW - 6,500 plants (ex: Residence, office buildings, etc.) : 100MW Construction of ‘Nanum Power Plant’ to go with a local society : 30MW by 2014 (26 plants in total) - Formation of local community or cooperatives - Use of the revenue on energy welfare Production and use of ‘Seoul Sunlight Map’ - Survey on PV potential and installation area Construction of energy self-sufficiency village : 25 villages by Seongdaegol Village (Dongjak-gu), -Seongmisan Village (Mapo-gu), -Seowon Village (Gangdong-gu), etc Introduction of ‘Seoul Power Generation Financial Aid System’ to promote the distribution of small PV installations “We build a city which itself is a huge PV power generation plant.” – Sunlight City

39 Improvement of energy-saving systems such as insulated windows, LED lighting and heating & cooling system “We dramatically enhance building energy efficiency.” Home-visit energy diagnosis service: 50,000 households, 1,500 small buildings) BRP in high-energy-consumption mid-size and large buildings: 700  1,221 buildings BRP (Municipal social welfare facilities) BRP targeting 10,000 detached houses Construction of low-carbon green schools Improvement of old and outdated public facilities Eco-School (elementary, middle and high) Project X 50,000 X 1, buildings 10 schools 2,500 houses 30 facilities 30 schools 842 buildings 30 schools 10,000 houses 59 facilities (completed 100%) 60 schools 700 building 1,221 building * → 2014

40 Construction of ‘Smart Lighting City’ through a perfect harmony between IT and lighting - Development of integrated outdoor lighting control system (ON-OFF, Dimming) - Establishment of ‘Outdoor Lighting Brightness Standards (2013)’: Early distribution of LED lights by attracting private investments (investment first, revenue later) through LED Association “ We improve energy-saving systems such as insulated windows, LED lighting and heating & cooling system.” Subway station (completed 100%) : 450,000 units Underground mall (completed 100%) : 16,000 units Expansion of the LED distribution in civil sector Replacement of lighting sources (signboard, security lamp, street lamp, etc.) with high-efficiency ones Underground parking lots of apartments and large commercial buildings: 2 million units Multipurpose facilities such as discount stores and departments stores: 5 million units LED Hall: Najin Store (2012 – 2015) The number of LED and solar cell-used signboards: 3,000 annually 16,500 LED security lamps in residence areas Replacement of old street lamps with energy-saving lamps: 140,000 - Expansion of the percentage of LED lighting For new buildings: 30-40% (2011)  100% (2014) Expansion of the LED distribution in public sector : 815,000 units by 2014 Public buildings and road : 309,000 units

41 Promotion of car-sharing program : 25,000 people (500 cars) (2012)  100,000 people (2,000 cars) - Priority on public parking lot ticket : 200 lots (2012)  1,200 lots (2014) - Operation of car-sharing information website and electric vehicle grant, etc. * Reduction of KRW 2,038,000 annually if a car-sharing program is used (SONATA 2.0 model / 10 years) “We build environment-friendly, high-efficiency transportation system.” Shift of perception from ‘possession’ to ‘use’ through the introduction of car-sharing program Promotion of ‘Weekly No Driving Day’ campaign in large buildings : 1,380 buildings (2012)  6,900 (2014) - 50% of the buildings which are subject to traffic occurrence charges (9% at present) Restriction on car use : Reduction of traffic volume : 8,260,000 cars (2009)  7,760,000 cars (2014) - Increase in traffic occurrence charges (KRW 350  1,000), increase in traffic occurrence indexes, expansion of local governor’s coordination rights (100%  200%), Increase in parking fee in urban & commercial area parking lots (2013) - Expansion and increase in congestion charges Purchase Possession Maintenance Passenger Car 2,8502,100 1,908KRW6,850,000 Basic RateAnnual RateCar Sharing 1104,701 KRW 4,812,000

42 Energy savings :2 million TOE Improvement of power self-sufficiency rates: 10% by 2014 Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions : 7,130,000 CO2 - 7,130km2 afforestation effect: 1,584 times greater than Yeouido (4.5km) Economic benefits: KRW 2.1 trillion -Petroleum import substitution: 15.6 million bl. * Total project cost (KRW 3.4 trillion) will be fully collected by Job creation: 44,000 jobs % % Effects

43 One nuclear reactor will be shut down by 2014 One nuclear reactor annually since 2015

44 Thank you 44

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