Presentation on theme: "Genetics! The study of heredity. Heredity: The passing of traits from parents to offspring Traits: Characteristics that are inherited – Hair color, eye."— Presentation transcript:
Genetics! The study of heredity
Heredity: The passing of traits from parents to offspring Traits: Characteristics that are inherited – Hair color, eye color, height…
Alleles: Different forms of a gene You have two alleles for every gene.
Genetics Vocab Homozygous: Two alleles are the same – Also known as purebreeds – Ex: AA or aa Heterozygous: Two alleles are different – Also called hybrids or carriers – Ex: Aa
Genetics Vocab The presence of an allele does not mean it will be expressed In a heterozygote (Aa), the dominant trait is seen and the recessive trait is hidden The recessive trait can only be seen when an organism has 2 copies of the recessive allele (aa) – Dominant Allele: Capital letter – Recessive Allele: Lowercase letter
What does it mean to be Dominant or Recessive?
How many of you have 6 fingers on each hand? 6 fingers are dominant
How many of you have a widow’s peak? Widow’s peak is dominant
How many of you have attached ear lobes? Attached earlobes are recessive
How many of you have the ability to roll your tongue? Rolling your tongue is dominant
How many of you have a straight thumb? Straight thumb is recessive
How many of you have blue eyes? Blue eyes are recessive
How many of you have freckles? Having freckles are dominant
How many of you have a cleft chin? Having a cleft chin is recessive
How many of you have a second toe longer than your big toe? Having a longer second toe is dominant
Which way do your thumbs cross each other when you are clasping your hands together? Left thumb on top is dominant
How many of you have an immunity to poison ivy? Poison ivy immunity is dominant
So…. The dominant trait is not always more common than the recessive trait!
Genetics Vocab Phenotype: The way an organism looks physically Genotype: The gene combination an organism has – Homozygous dominant: AA – Homozygous recessive: aa – Heterozygous: Aa You can’t always tell an organism’s genotype by looking at its phenotype
Try some practice!
Gregor Mendel The father of genetics Gregor Mendel used pea plants to study the inheritance of traits
Mendelian Vocabulary Parental Generation (P 1 ): The first two pea plants crossed The offspring of the P 1 generation are called the F 1 generation If we cross plants from the F 1 generation we get the F 2 generation and so on…
Mendel’s Laws 1. Law of Dominance In a heterozygous individual, the dominant allele will be expressed and the recessive allele will be hidden 2. Law of Segregation: During meiosis, homologous pairs are separated and each gamete only receives one allele 3. Law of Independent Assortment During meiosis, homologous pairs separate RANDOMLY and INDEPENDENTLY of each other