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Genetics! The study of heredity.

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Presentation on theme: "Genetics! The study of heredity."— Presentation transcript:

1 Genetics! The study of heredity

2 Heredity: The passing of traits from parents to offspring
Traits: Characteristics that are inherited Hair color, eye color, height…

3 Alleles: Different forms of a gene
You have two alleles for every gene.


5 Genetics Vocab Homozygous: Two alleles are the same
Also known as purebreeds Ex: AA or aa Heterozygous: Two alleles are different Also called hybrids or carriers Ex: Aa

6 Genetics Vocab The presence of an allele does not mean it will be expressed In a heterozygote (Aa), the dominant trait is seen and the recessive trait is hidden The recessive trait can only be seen when an organism has 2 copies of the recessive allele (aa) Dominant Allele: Capital letter Recessive Allele: Lowercase letter

7 What does it mean to be Dominant or Recessive?

8 How many of you have 6 fingers on each hand?
6 fingers are dominant

9 How many of you have a widow’s peak?
Widow’s peak is dominant

10 How many of you have attached ear lobes?
Attached earlobes are recessive

11 How many of you have the ability to roll your tongue?
Rolling your tongue is dominant

12 How many of you have a straight thumb?
Straight thumb is recessive

13 How many of you have blue eyes?
Blue eyes are recessive

14 How many of you have freckles?
Having freckles are dominant

15 How many of you have a cleft chin?
Having a cleft chin is recessive

16 How many of you have a second toe longer than your big toe?
Having a longer second toe is dominant

17 Which way do your thumbs cross each other when you are clasping your hands together?
Left thumb on top is dominant

18 How many of you have an immunity to poison ivy?
Poison ivy immunity is dominant

19 The dominant trait is not always more common than the recessive trait!
So…. The dominant trait is not always more common than the recessive trait!

20 Genetics Vocab Phenotype: The way an organism looks physically
Genotype: The gene combination an organism has Homozygous dominant: AA Homozygous recessive: aa Heterozygous: Aa You can’t always tell an organism’s genotype by looking at its phenotype

21 Try some practice!

22 Gregor Mendel The father of genetics
Gregor Mendel used pea plants to study the inheritance of traits

23 Mendelian Vocabulary Parental Generation (P1): The first two pea plants crossed The offspring of the P1 generation are called the F1 generation If we cross plants from the F1 generation we get the F2 generation and so on…

24 Mendel’s Laws 1. Law of Dominance
In a heterozygous individual, the dominant allele will be expressed and the recessive allele will be hidden 2. Law of Segregation: During meiosis, homologous pairs are separated and each gamete only receives one allele 3. Law of Independent Assortment During meiosis, homologous pairs separate RANDOMLY and INDEPENDENTLY of each other

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