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Nursing Assessment.

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Presentation on theme: "Nursing Assessment."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nursing Assessment

2 What are we looking for? Disease
-disturbance of a structure or function of the body. -signs and symptoms. Signs: objective data Symptoms: subjective data clustered in groups Assessment of signs and symptoms Assists the physician to make a medical diagnosis Assists the nurse in making the nursing diagnosis

3 Etiology of Disease hereditary congenital inflammatory degenerative
infectious deficiency metabolic neoplastic traumatic environmental diseases that have no apparent cause (unknown etiology)

4 Risk Factors and Development of Disease
A “risk factor” is: any situation, habit, environmental condition, genetic predisposition or physiologic condition increases the vulnerability of an individual to illness or accident. The presence of risk factors does not necessarily mean that a person will develop a disease condition, only that the chances of disease are increased.

5 Risk Factors and Development of Disease
Categories of risk factors Genetic & Physiological Age Environment Lifestyle

6 Nursing Assessment Initiating the Nurse-Patient Relationship
-introduce yourself -name -position -purpose of the interview -estimate of time -opportunity for questions and answers -communicate your trustworthiness/confidentiality. -convey competence/professionalism.

7 Perform assessment as soon after admission as possible.
Purpose of the assessment: -determine the patient’s state of health -construct the nursing diagnosis Perform assessment as soon after admission as possible. Initial assessment- Nurse and/or MD. Ongoing assessment –LPN/RN Nurses are often the first to detect changes in the patient’s condition

8 The Interview -relaxed, unhurried manner.
-quiet, private, well-lighted setting. -compassion and concern. -what name the patient wishes to use -accepting posture -relaxed -eye level -pleasant facial expression

9 Biographical Data date of birth Sex address family members
marital status religious preference occupation source of health care insurance

10 Reasons for Seeking Health Care
Chief Complaint - patient’s own words OPQRST method: O = onset, duration of problem P = provocation/palliation: what makes it worse or better? Q= quality/quantity R =region/radiation- where it is, where it goes S = severity T = time: when the problem started, has it been constant

11 The Interview Past Health History Family History hospitalizations
allergies specific reaction to antigen habits and lifestyle patterns activity of daily living’ (ADLs) sleep, exercise, and nutrition Family History Immediate/blood relatives -health -cause of death -history of illness

12 The Interview Environmental History Psychosocial /Cultural History
home environment Psychosocial /Cultural History -primary language -cultural groups -educational background -attention span -developmental stage -coping skills/family support -major beliefs, values, and behaviors

13 Assessment Subjective data Identify symptoms -perceived by the patient
-Pt. report; states Identify symptoms nurse unaware of symptoms unless the patient describes the sensation description from the patient -onset -course -character of the problem -factors that aggravate/alleviate

14 Assessment Objective data/signs -risk for illnesses
-family structure, interaction, and function -‘barriers’ to care -seen, heard, measured -often verified by more than one person -rashes, -altered vital signs, -visible drainage/exudate -Lab results, diagnostic imaging, and other studies

15 Physical Assessment Review of Systems [ROS] Systematic method:
For collecting data on all body systems Record in clear and concise manner Use appropriate terminology Ask specific questions Assess the functioning of each system

16 Head to Toe Assessment Items needed: WASH YOUR HANDS!! -penlight
-stethoscope -blood pressure cuff -thermometer -gloves -tongue blade Senses of touch, smell, sight, and hearing.

17 Neurologic Level of consciousness/orientation -Awake and Alert?
-oriented to: -Person (knows his name -Place (can tell you where he is) -Time (knows the day and date). -Purpose (knows why you are examining him)

18 Head-to-Toe Assessment
Neurologic cont. Assess: Motor Function Ask pt. to move each extremity Ask pt. to smile, frown, lift eyebrows Check Pupilary Response Check for size, equality, and shape

19 Head-to-Toe Assessment
Integumentary system Observe skin -color scars -temperature lesions -moisture, texture wounds -turgor redness/irritation -evidence of injury color or sclera -breaks in the skin mucous membranes -tongue lips -nail beds palms/soles. Hair -quantity quality -distribution smoothness -oily/dry Scalp should be free of dandruff, lesions, or parasites

20 Assessing Skin Turgor Grasp fold of skin on back of patient’s hand, sternum, forearm or abdomen. -Observe the ease and speed with which skin returns to place.

21 Head-to-Toe Assessment
Strength Testing If pain or injury  begin with normal side Compare one side to other Score: 0 = No Active Movement 1 = Muscle contraction, no movement 2 = Full Active ROM with gravity eliminated 3 = Full Active ROM movement against gravity 4 = Full active ROM against partial resistance 5= Full active ROM overcome full resistance Documentation Eg. -”Strength in upper extremity was 5/5”

22 Head-to-Toe Assessment
Head and neck facial expression. symmetry of features. arteries, veins, and lymph nodes. jugular vein distention Palpate: -beneath the jaw -side of the neck -enlarged lymph nodes -carotid arteries. Auscultate - carotids for bruits.

23 Head-to-Toe Assessment
Nose -symmetrical -patency -bleeding/drainage. -nares. Mouth and throat -lips/mucous membranes - use tongue blade and penlight. -teeth/gums. -breath odor.

24 -hear/follow commands. -hearing aids
Eyes -symmetry. -exudate/drainage -sclera. -pupillary reflex -penlight -PERRLA (Pupils Equal, Round, Reactive to Light and Accomodation) Ears -ear canal. -hear/follow commands. -hearing aids

25 Head-to-Toe Assessment
Breasts -examine -encourage monthly self-exams Spine -curvature -sitting/standing position.

26 Head-to-Toe Assessment
Pulmonary System Chest -bilateral chest expansion. -rate/rhythm of respirations. -Breathing should be QUIET. -posture.

27 Head-to-Toe Assessment
Lung sounds -breath through mouth quietly -more deeply and slower -stethoscope firmly but not tightly on the skin -listen for one full inspiratory/expiratory cycle at each point. -auscultate using a zig-zag pattern. -adventitious breath sounds = crackles, wheezes

28 How does Respiration Occur?
Inspiration Inspiration Diaphragm


30 Head-to-Toe Assessment
Cardio-vascular System Heart sounds Auscultate intensity of the sound -faint to strong. -stethoscope -bell picks up sounds of low frequency -diaphragm picks up sounds of high frequency.  -regularity of the rhythm.

31 Areas of Auscultation Aortic Area- Pulmonary Area
-second intercostal space -right of the sternum -aortic valve   Pulmonary Area -left of the sternum -pulmonic valve   Left Lateral Sternal Border (LLSB) -fourth intercostal space -tricuspid and right heart sounds Apex(Mitral) -fifth intercostal space -mitral and left heart sounds  


33 Anatomical Heart Position
Superior Vena Cava Aorta Pulmonary Artery Anatomical Heart Position

34 Patient Positions for Auscultation of Heart Sounds
Sitting up, Leaning slightly forward Left Lateral recumbent Supine

35 Heart Sounds Lubb: -long, low-pitched sound
-closure of the Tricuspid and Bicuspid Valves -Systolic Murmur Dupp: -short, sharper sound -closing of Pulmonary and Aortic Valves -Diastolic Murmur

36 Head-to-Toe Assessment
Peripheral vascular system Peripheral pulses- 8 Strength on a 0-to-4+ scale 0 = absent 1+ = thready 2+ = weak 3+ = normal 4+ = bounding Extremities -symmetry -color -varicosities. -temperature of hands and feet.

37 Capillary Refill Time that blood refills empty capillaries
To “empty” the capillary bed: press a fingernail or tissue bed until it turns white note of the time needed for color to return once the nail is released normal capillary refill time is less the (<) 3 seconds Capillary Refill Time (CRT) is a common measure of peripheral perfusion.

38 Palpation of arterial pulses
Femoral Brachial Radial Posterior tibial . Popliteal Dorsalis pedis


40 Head-to-Toe Assessment
Abdomen Check for: Shape, lumps, contour, rashes, lesions, scars Auscultate: Bowel Sounds in all quadrants Listen at least 1 min in each quadrant Note hyperactive vs diminished/ absent sounds Palpation/Percussion

41 Palpation of the abdomen ----distention
-masses - tenderness Palpation of the liver.

42 Rectum Genitourinary system Skilled observation: Palpate
labia/genitalia pubic hair. Palpate -suprapubic area. -scrotum -encourage regular self examination. Rectum assess for hemorrhoids / lesions.

43 Legs and Feet Palpate -femoral -dorsalis pedis -popliteal
-posterior tibial pulses. Range of motion (ROM) Color, Motion, Sensation (CMS) Temperature

44 Edema Pitting edema 1+ “Trace” -slight pitting
-no visible change in the shape of the extremity -disappears rapidly 2+ “Mild” -deeper pitting -no marked change in the shape of the extremity -disappears (“rebounds”) in 10 to 15 seconds 3+ “Moderate” -noticeably deep pitting -very edematous and distorted extremity -last from 15 seconds-1 minute 4+ “Severe” -very deep pitting -lasts as long as 2 to 5 minutes If the edema is not pitting, it cannot be given a grade

45 Edema of the leg

46 Edema: It’s not just for legs !

47 Ending the Assessment Thank the patient. Wash your hands
Disinfect pen. Document your findings thoroughly. -Documentation does impact the quality of care given. Report any significant changes or findings to the appropriate healthcare professional.

48 A nurse should perform a quick assessment of each patient at the beginning of each shift to determine actual or potential patient problems that will require medical or nursing interventions to promote the safety and well-being of the patient.

49 Quick Assessment (A B Cs)
A = Airway P = Pain Includes comfort measures B = Breathing S = Safety Water and Call bell in reach C = Circulation In = What’s going in Check IV patency Infusion rates, machines and tubing Out = What’s going out Dressings Chest tubes Urinary drainage tubes


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