Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Physical Assessment Chapter 5 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Physical Assessment Chapter 5 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc."— Presentation transcript:

1 Physical Assessment Chapter 5 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.

2 Slide 2 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Signs and Symptoms Signs  Objective data as perceived by the examiner  Can be seen, heard, and measured and can be verified by more than one person  Examples: rashes, altered vital signs, visible drainage or exudate  Lab results, diagnostic imaging, and other studies

3 Slide 3 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Symptoms  Subjective data  Perceived by the patient  Examples: pain, nausea, vertigo, and anxiety  Nurse unaware of symptoms unless the patient describes the sensation  Encourage a full description by the patient of the onset, the course, the character of the problem, and any factors that aggravate or alleviate Signs and Symptoms

4 Slide 4 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Disease and Diagnosis  Disease It is any disturbance of a structure or function of the body; a pathologic condition of the body It is recognized by a set of signs and symptoms Signs and symptoms are clustered in groups to help the physician to make a medical diagnosis The nurse also relies on assessment of signs and symptoms to formulate a nursing diagnosis Signs and Symptoms

5 Slide 5 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Origins of Disease  Disease or illness originates from many causes: hereditary, congenital, inflammatory, degenerative, infectious, deficiency, metabolic, neoplastic, traumatic, and environmental  Unknown etiology Diseases that have no apparent cause Signs and Symptoms

6 Slide 6 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Risk Factors for Development of Disease  A risk factor is any situation, habit, environmental condition, genetic predisposition, physiologic condition, and other that increases the vulnerability of an individual or a group to illness or accident  Risk factors do not necessarily mean that a person will develop a disease condition, only that the chances of disease are increased  Categories of risk factors Genetic and physiologic, age, environment, and lifestyle Signs and Symptoms

7 Slide 7 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Terms Used to Describe Disease  Chronic Develops slowly and persists over a long period, often for a person’s lifetime  Remission Partial or complete disappearance of clinical and subjective characteristics of a disease  Acute Begins abruptly with marked intensity of severe signs and symptoms and then often subsides after a period of treatment Signs and Symptoms

8 Slide 8 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Terms Used to Describe Disease  Organic disease Results in structural change in an organ that interferes with its functioning  Functional disease May be manifested as organic disease, but careful examination fails to reveal evidence of structural or physiologic abnormalities Signs and Symptoms

9 Slide 9 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Frequently Noted Signs and Symptoms  Infection Caused by an invasion of microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites that produce tissue damage  Inflammation Protective response of the body tissues to irritation, injury, or invasion by disease-producing organisms Signs and Symptoms

10 Slide 10 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Frequently Noted Signs and Symptoms  Cardinal signs of infection and inflammation Erythema Edema Heat Pain Purulent drainage Loss of function Signs and Symptoms

11 Slide 11 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Assessment Process of making an evaluation or appraisal of the patient’s condition Medical Assessment  Physical examination is conducted by the physician  The nurse is often expected to carry out certain functions

12 Slide 12 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Medical Assessment  Functions that may be expected of the nurse  Equipment and supplies Preparing the exam room Assisting with equipment Preparing the patient Collecting specimens Assessment

13 Slide 13 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Nursing Assessment  Initiating the nurse-patient relationship The first interview is the most challenging to conduct. Introduce yourself and state name, position, and purpose of the interview. Give an estimate of time. Ask if the patient has any questions and answer them appropriately. Communicate trust and confidentiality. Convey competence and professionalism. Assessment

14 Slide 14 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Nursing Assessment  The interview Provide relaxed, unhurried manner. Conduct in a quiet, private, well-lighted setting. Convey feelings of compassion and concern. Determine by what name the patient wishes to be addressed. Nurse should have an accepting posture, relaxed, eye level, and pleasant facial expression. Assessment

15 Slide 15 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Nursing Health History  The initial step in assessment process  Information on patient’s wellness, changes in life patterns, sociocultural role, and mental and emotional reaction to illness  Biographical data Date of birth, sex, address, family members’, marital status, religious preference, occupations, source of health care, and insurance Assessment

16 Slide 16 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Nursing Health History  Reasons for seeking health care Chief complaint  Document information in patient’s own words.  The nurse can use the PQRST method: P provocative/palliative Q quality/quantity R region/radiation S severity T timing Assessment

17 Slide 17 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Nursing Health History  Present illness or health concerns The data collected relate to the progression of the present illness from the onset of the current signs and symptoms  Past health history Previous hospitalizations Allergies Habits and lifestyle patterns Ability to perform ADLs Patterns of sleep, exercise, and nutrition Assessment

18 Slide 18 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Nursing Health History  Family history Immediate and blood relatives Includes health or cause of death, as well as history of illness Objective is to determine patient’s risk for illnesses of a genetic or familial nature Provides information about family structure, interaction, and function Assessment

19 Slide 19 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Nursing Health History  Environmental history Provides data about patient’s home environment  Psychosocial and cultural history Data about primary language, cultural groups, educational background, attention span, and developmental stage Coping skills and family support Identify major beliefs, values, and behaviors when treating them Assessment

20 Slide 20 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Nursing Health History  Review of systems Systematic method for collecting data on all body systems Record in clear and concise manner with appropriate terminology Ask specific questions relating to functioning of each system Assessment

21 Slide 21 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Nursing Physical Assessment  The purpose is to determine the patient’s state of health or illness  Initial step of the nursing process and in forming the nursing care plan  When to perform a physical assessment Perform assessment as soon after admission as possible. Initial assessment is done by an RN. Ongoing assessment is the responsibility of LPN and RN. Assessment

22 Slide 22 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Nursing Physical Assessment  Where to perform a nursing assessment Comfortable, private setting In most cases, the patient’s own room works very well and is convenient  Methods of nursing physical assessment Head-to-toe System-by-system Focused Assessment

23 Slide 23 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Nursing Physical Assessment  Performing the nursing physical assessment Items needed: penlight, stethoscope, blood pressure cuff, thermometer, gloves, and a tongue blade Nurse also makes use of the senses of touch, smell, sight, and hearing Always wash your hands before beginning assessment. Documentation of the interview and assessment is necessary utilizing facility forms Telephone consultation Assessment

24 Slide 24 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Figure 5-1 Equipment used during a physical examination. (From Elkin, M.K., Perry, A.G., Potter, P.A. [2004]. Nursing interventions and clinical skills. [3 rd ed.]. St. Louis: Mosby.)

25 Slide 25 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Performing the Nursing Physical Assessment  Head-to-toe assessment Neurologic  Level of consciousness  Level of orientation  Hand grips Assessment

26 Slide 26 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.  Head-to-Toe Assessment (continued) Skin and hair  Observe skin for color, temperature, moisture, texture, turgor, and evidence of injury or skin lesions.  Note color of sclera, mucous membranes, tongue, lips, nail beds, palms, and soles.  Determine the quantity, quality, and distribution of hair.  Hair should be smooth, not oily or dry.  Scalp should be free of dandruff, lesions, or parasites. Assessment

27 Slide 27 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Figure 5-3 Assess skin turgor by grasping fold of skin on back of patient’s hand, sternum, forearm, or abdomen. (From Elkin, M.K., Perry, A.G., Potter, P.A. [2004]. Nursing interventions and clinical skills. [3 rd ed.]. St. Louis: Mosby.)

28 Slide 28 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.  Head-to-Toe Assessment (continued) Head and neck  Note facial expression.  Note symmetry of features.  Assess arteries, veins, and lymph nodes.  Palpate beneath the jaw and down each side of the neck to feel for enlarged lymph nodes.  Palpate carotid arteries.  Assess jugular vein distention.  Auscultate the carotids for bruits. Assessment

29 Slide 29 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Figure 5-4 Palpation of carotid artery. (From Seidel, H.M., Ball, J.W., Dains, J.E., Benedict, G.W. [2003]. Mosby’s guide to physical examination. [5 th ed.]. St. Louis: Mosby.)

30 Slide 30 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.  Head-to-Toe Assessment (continued) Mouth and throat  Inspect the lips and mucous membranes with tongue blade and penlight.  Note condition of teeth and gums.  Note breath odor. Eyes  Note symmetry.  Assess for exudates.  Assess sclera.  Observe pupillary reflex. Assessment

31 Slide 31 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.  Head-to-Toe Assessment (continued) Ears  Note symmetry.  Assess ear canal.  Note ability to hear and follow commands.  Note use of hearing aids if applicable. Nose  It should be symmetrical.  Assess patency.  Observe for bleeding or drainage.  Assess nares. Assessment

32 Slide 32 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.  Head-to-Toe Assessment (continued) Chest, lungs, and heart and vascular system  Inspect for bilateral chest expansion.  Note rate and rhythm of respirations.  Breathing should be QUIET.  Note posture. Breasts  Examine and encourage monthly self-exams. Assessment

33 Slide 33 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.  Head-to-Toe Assessment (continued) Lung sounds  Instruct patient to breath through mouth quietly and more deeply and slowly than a usual respiration.  Place stethoscope firmly but not tightly on the skin and listen for one full inspiratory/expiratory cycle at each point.  Systematically auscultate using a zigzag pattern. Assessment

34 Slide 34 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.  Head-to-Toe Assessment (continued) Spine  Note the curvature while in a sitting and a standing position. Heart sounds  Auscultate with stethoscope.  Listen for intensity of the sound, faint to strong.  Determine the regularity of the rhythm. Assessment

35 Slide 35 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Figure 5-8 Sequence of patient positions for auscultation of heart sounds. (From Seidel, H.M., Ball, J.W., Dains, J.E., Benedict, G.W. [2003]. Mosby’s guide to physical examination. [5 th ed.]. St. Louis: Mosby.)

36 Slide 36 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.  Head-to-Toe Assessment (continued) Peripheral vascular system  Palpate peripheral pulses.  Rate the strength on a 0-to-4+ scale.  Assess extremities for symmetry, color, and varicosities.  Assess temperature of hands and feet.  Perform capillary refill or blanch test. Assessment

37 Slide 37 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Figure 5-9 Palpation of arterial pulses. (From Seidel, H.M., Ball, J.W., Dains, J.E., Benedict, G.W. [2003]. Mosby’s guide to physical examination. [5 th ed.]. St. Louis: Mosby.)

38 Slide 38 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.  Head-to-Toe Assessment (continued) Abdomen  Inspect for shape, contour, lesions, scars, lumps, or rashes.  Auscultate for bowel sounds in all quadrants.  Perform palpation and percussion. Genitourinary system  Inspect labia/genitalia and pubic hair.  Palpate the scrotum.  Palpate suprapubic area. Assessment

39 Slide 39 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Figure 5-11 Palpation of the abdomen to assess for distention, masses, or tenderness using light palpation. (From Thompson, J.M., Wilson, S.F. [1996]. Health assessment for nursing practice. St. Louis: Mosby.)

40 Slide 40 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Figure 5-12 Palpation of the liver using moderate palpation. (From Seidel, H.M., Ball, J.W., Dains, J.E., Benedict, G.W. [2003]. Mosby’s guide to physical examination. [5 th ed.]. St. Louis: Mosby.)

41 Slide 41 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.  Head-to-Toe Assessment (continued) Rectum  Spread buttocks and assess for hemorrhoids or lesions. Legs and feet  Palpate femoral, dorsalis pedis, popliteal, and posterior tibial pulses.  Observe and palpate for edema.  Test for range of motion.  Check color, motion, sensation, and temperature of both feet. Assessment


Download ppt "Physical Assessment Chapter 5 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google