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Chapter 5 Physical Assessment

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1 Chapter 5 Physical Assessment
Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.

2 Signs and Symptoms Signs Objective data as perceived by the examiner
Can be seen, heard, and measured and can be verified by more than one person Examples: rashes, altered vital signs, visible drainage or exudate Lab results, diagnostic imaging, and other studies What is objective data? Give examples of signs.

3 Signs and Symptoms Symptoms Subjective data Perceived by the patient
Examples: pain, nausea, vertigo, and anxiety Nurse unaware of symptoms unless the patient describes the sensation Encourage a full description by the patient of the onset, the course, the character of the problem, and any factors that aggravate or alleviate What is subjective data? Give examples of symptoms.

4 Signs and Symptoms Disease and Diagnosis Disease
It is any disturbance of a structure or function of the body; a pathologic condition of the body It is recognized by a set of signs and symptoms Signs and symptoms are clustered in groups to help the physician to make a medical diagnosis The nurse also relies on assessment of signs and symptoms to formulate a nursing diagnosis What does the term “disease” mean to you? What are some signs and symptoms of a typical disease?

5 Signs and Symptoms Origins of Disease
Disease or illness originates from many causes: hereditary, congenital, inflammatory, degenerative, infectious, deficiency, metabolic, neoplastic, traumatic, and environmental Unknown etiology Diseases that have no apparent cause Have students give examples of diseases that fall into the categories of: hereditary congenital inflammatory degenerative infectious deficiency metabolic neoplastic traumatic environmental unknown etiology

6 Signs and Symptoms Risk Factors for Development of Disease
A risk factor is any situation, habit, environmental condition, genetic predisposition, physiologic condition, and other that increases the vulnerability of an individual or a group to illness or accident Risk factors do not necessarily mean that a person will develop a disease condition, only that the chances of disease are increased Categories of risk factors Genetic and physiologic, age, environment, and lifestyle What does the term “risk factor” mean? What are the four categories of risk factors? If a patient has a risk factor, what does that indicate?

7 Signs and Symptoms Terms Used to Describe Disease Chronic Remission
Develops slowly and persists over a long period, often for a person’s lifetime Remission Partial or complete disappearance of clinical and subjective characteristics of a disease Acute Begins abruptly with marked intensity of severe signs and symptoms and then often subsides after a period of treatment Describe a chronic disease. What is an acute disease? What does the term “remission” mean?

8 Signs and Symptoms Terms Used to Describe Disease Organic disease
Results in structural change in an organ that interferes with its functioning Functional disease May be manifested as organic disease, but careful examination fails to reveal evidence of structural or physiologic abnormalities What is the difference between organic and functional disease?

9 Signs and Symptoms Frequently Noted Signs and Symptoms Infection
Caused by an invasion of microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites that produce tissue damage Inflammation Protective response of the body tissues to irritation, injury, or invasion by disease-producing organisms What are the signs and symptoms of infection? What are the signs and symptoms of inflammation? What are the differences and similarities of infection and inflammation?

10 Signs and Symptoms Frequently Noted Signs and Symptoms
Cardinal signs of infection and inflammation Erythema Edema Heat Pain Purulent drainage Loss of function What are the cardinal signs of infection and inflammation? Describe each sign and symptom.

11 Assessment Process of making an evaluation or appraisal of the patient’s condition Medical Assessment Physical examination is conducted by the physician The nurse is often expected to carry out certain functions What does the term “assessment” mean? What is involved in a medical assessment? Ask students to volunteer information of their experiences of a medical assessment.

12 Assessment Medical Assessment
Functions that may be expected of the nurse Equipment and supplies Preparing the exam room Assisting with equipment Preparing the patient Collecting specimens What functions might be required of a nurse during a medical assessment? What equipment and/or supplies are necessary for a physical assessment?

13 Assessment Nursing Assessment
Initiating the nurse-patient relationship The first interview is the most challenging to conduct. Introduce yourself and state name, position, and purpose of the interview. Give an estimate of time. Ask if the patient has any questions and answer them appropriately. Communicate trust and confidentiality. Convey competence and professionalism. How should a nurse approach a patient for the first time? What does the term “professionalism” mean? How does the first nurse-patient interaction affect trust in the relationship?

14 Assessment Nursing Assessment The interview
Provide relaxed, unhurried manner. Conduct in a quiet, private, well-lighted setting. Convey feelings of compassion and concern. Determine by what name the patient wishes to be addressed. Nurse should have an accepting posture, relaxed, eye level, and pleasant facial expression. What elements are conducive to provide a therapeutic interview?

15 Assessment Nursing Health History
The initial step in assessment process Information on patient’s wellness, changes in life patterns, sociocultural role, and mental and emotional reaction to illness Biographical data Date of birth, sex, address, family members’, marital status, religious preference, occupations, source of health care, and insurance What is the initial step in taking a health history? What is the rationale for obtaining a health history?

16 Assessment Nursing Health History Reasons for seeking health care
Chief complaint Document information in patient’s own words. The nurse can use the PQRST method: P provocative/palliative Q quality/quantity R region/radiation S severity T timing Define the “chief complaint.” What is the “PQRST” method?

17 Assessment Nursing Health History Present illness or health concerns
The data collected relate to the progression of the present illness from the onset of the current signs and symptoms Past health history Previous hospitalizations Allergies Habits and lifestyle patterns Ability to perform ADLs Patterns of sleep, exercise, and nutrition What data is obtained when inquiring about the present illness? What data is obtained from the past health history?

18 Assessment Nursing Health History Family history
Immediate and blood relatives Includes health or cause of death, as well as history of illness Objective is to determine patient’s risk for illnesses of a genetic or familial nature Provides information about family structure, interaction, and function Why is it important to obtain a family health history?

19 Assessment Nursing Health History Environmental history
Provides data about patient’s home environment Psychosocial and cultural history Data about primary language, cultural groups, educational background, attention span, and developmental stage Coping skills and family support Identify major beliefs, values, and behaviors when treating them What typical information is obtained while performing an environmental assessment? Why is it important to obtain a psychosocial history?

20 Assessment Nursing Health History Review of systems
Systematic method for collecting data on all body systems Record in clear and concise manner with appropriate terminology Ask specific questions relating to functioning of each system What does the term “review of systems” mean? How is it applicable to a nursing assessment?

21 Assessment Nursing Physical Assessment
The purpose is to determine the patient’s state of health or illness Initial step of the nursing process and in forming the nursing care plan When to perform a physical assessment Perform assessment as soon after admission as possible. Initial assessment is done by an RN. Ongoing assessment is the responsibility of LPN and RN. What is the purpose of the nurse’s physical assessment? Why does an RN perform the initial assessment? Why is it both the RN and LPN/LVN’s responsibility to perform ongoing nursing assessments?

22 Assessment Nursing Physical Assessment
Where to perform a nursing assessment Comfortable, private setting In most cases, the patient’s own room works very well and is convenient Methods of nursing physical assessment Head-to-toe System-by-system Focused Ask students to describe an environment in which they would prefer a physical assessment be conducted. What is the difference among head-to-toe assessment, system-by-system assessment, and focused assessment?

23 Assessment Nursing Physical Assessment
Performing the nursing physical assessment Items needed: penlight, stethoscope, blood pressure cuff, thermometer, gloves, and a tongue blade Nurse also makes use of the senses of touch, smell, sight, and hearing Always wash your hands before beginning assessment. Documentation of the interview and assessment is necessary utilizing facility forms Telephone consultation What typical items are needed to perform a nursing physical assessment? Why is it important for the nurse to wash his/her hands before assessing the patient? What senses does the nurse utilize when assessing the patient? In what instances does the nurse perform a telephone consultation?

24 Equipment used during a physical examination.
Figure 5-1 (From Elkin, M.K., Perry, A.G., Potter, P.A. [2004]. Nursing interventions and clinical skills. [3rd ed.]. St. Louis: Mosby.) Equipment used during a physical examination.

25 Assessment Performing the Nursing Physical Assessment
Head-to-toe assessment Neurologic Level of consciousness Level of orientation Hand grips Why is the neurologic system the first system to assess when performing a head-to-toe assessment?

26 Assessment Head-to-Toe Assessment (continued) Skin and hair
Observe skin for color, temperature, moisture, texture, turgor, and evidence of injury or skin lesions. Note color of sclera, mucous membranes, tongue, lips, nail beds, palms, and soles. Determine the quantity, quality, and distribution of hair. Hair should be smooth, not oily or dry. Scalp should be free of dandruff, lesions, or parasites. In what situations have you witnessed skin or hair abnormalities? When does the nurse begin the assessment of the patient?

27 Figure 5-3 (From Elkin, M.K., Perry, A.G., Potter, P.A. [2004]. Nursing interventions and clinical skills. [3rd ed.]. St. Louis: Mosby.) Assess skin turgor by grasping fold of skin on back of patient’s hand, sternum, forearm, or abdomen.

28 Assessment Head-to-Toe Assessment (continued) Head and neck
Note facial expression. Note symmetry of features. Assess arteries, veins, and lymph nodes. Palpate beneath the jaw and down each side of the neck to feel for enlarged lymph nodes. Palpate carotid arteries. Assess jugular vein distention. Auscultate the carotids for bruits. In what manner is the head and neck assessment conducted?

29 Palpation of carotid artery.
Figure 5-4 (From Seidel, H.M., Ball, J.W., Dains, J.E., Benedict, G.W. [2003]. Mosby’s guide to physical examination. [5th ed.]. St. Louis: Mosby.) Palpation of carotid artery.

30 Assessment Head-to-Toe Assessment (continued) Mouth and throat Eyes
Inspect the lips and mucous membranes with tongue blade and penlight. Note condition of teeth and gums. Note breath odor. Eyes Note symmetry. Assess for exudates. Assess sclera. Observe pupillary reflex. How do you assess the mouth and throat? What tools might be necessary to assess the mouth, throat, and eyes? How do you assess the eyes?

31 Assessment Head-to-Toe Assessment (continued) Ears Nose Note symmetry.
Assess ear canal. Note ability to hear and follow commands. Note use of hearing aids if applicable. Nose It should be symmetrical. Assess patency. Observe for bleeding or drainage. Assess nares. How do you assess the ears? How do you assess the nose?

32 Assessment Head-to-Toe Assessment (continued)
Chest, lungs, and heart and vascular system Inspect for bilateral chest expansion. Note rate and rhythm of respirations. Breathing should be QUIET. Note posture. Breasts Examine and encourage monthly self-exams. How do you assess the chest, lungs, heart, and vascular system? How do you instruct the patient to perform monthly breast exams?

33 Assessment Head-to-Toe Assessment (continued) Lung sounds
Instruct patient to breath through mouth quietly and more deeply and slowly than a usual respiration. Place stethoscope firmly but not tightly on the skin and listen for one full inspiratory/expiratory cycle at each point. Systematically auscultate using a zigzag pattern. How do you properly auscultate the lungs?

34 Assessment Head-to-Toe Assessment (continued) Spine Heart sounds
Note the curvature while in a sitting and a standing position. Heart sounds Auscultate with stethoscope. Listen for intensity of the sound, faint to strong. Determine the regularity of the rhythm. How do you assess the spine? How do you assess heart sounds? Discuss spinal abnormalities.

35 Sequence of patient positions for auscultation of heart sounds.
Figure 5-8 (From Seidel, H.M., Ball, J.W., Dains, J.E., Benedict, G.W. [2003]. Mosby’s guide to physical examination. [5th ed.]. St. Louis: Mosby.) Sequence of patient positions for auscultation of heart sounds.

36 Assessment Head-to-Toe Assessment (continued)
Peripheral vascular system Palpate peripheral pulses. Rate the strength on a 0-to-4+ scale. Assess extremities for symmetry, color, and varicosities. Assess temperature of hands and feet. Perform capillary refill or blanch test. How do you assess peripheral pulses? How do you document the strength of peripheral pulses? Why would a nurse assess capillary refill?

37 Palpation of arterial pulses.
Figure 5-9 (From Seidel, H.M., Ball, J.W., Dains, J.E., Benedict, G.W. [2003]. Mosby’s guide to physical examination. [5th ed.]. St. Louis: Mosby.) Palpation of arterial pulses.

38 Assessment Head-to-Toe Assessment (continued) Abdomen
Inspect for shape, contour, lesions, scars, lumps, or rashes. Auscultate for bowel sounds in all quadrants. Perform palpation and percussion. Genitourinary system Inspect labia/genitalia and pubic hair. Palpate the scrotum. Palpate suprapubic area. How do you perform an abdominal assessment? Why would you auscultate for bowel sounds prior to performing palpation on the abdomen? How do you assess the genitourinary system? How do you assess the male and female genitalia? Discuss how to provide privacy when assessing the perineum.

39 Figure 5-11 (From Thompson, J.M., Wilson, S.F. [1996]. Health assessment for nursing practice. St. Louis: Mosby.) Palpation of the abdomen to assess for distention, masses, or tenderness using light palpation.

40 Palpation of the liver using moderate palpation.
Figure 5-12 (From Seidel, H.M., Ball, J.W., Dains, J.E., Benedict, G.W. [2003]. Mosby’s guide to physical examination. [5th ed.]. St. Louis: Mosby.) Palpation of the liver using moderate palpation.

41 Assessment Head-to-Toe Assessment (continued) Rectum Legs and feet
Spread buttocks and assess for hemorrhoids or lesions. Legs and feet Palpate femoral, dorsalis pedis, popliteal, and posterior tibial pulses. Observe and palpate for edema. Test for range of motion. Check color, motion, sensation, and temperature of both feet. What are hemorrhoids and rectal lesions? How do you assess the legs and feet? Reiterate assessment of peripheral pulses and assessment for edema.

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