2Text StructureChronological order – organized in TIME order, when things happenKey words – Dates, timesJack and Jill ran up the hill to fetch a pail of water. Jack fell down and broke his crown and Jill came tumbling after.
3Text StructureCompare/Contrast – two or more things are described, listing ways that things are the same and how they are differentKey words – both, same, different, on the other hand, meanwhileLinux and Windows are both operating systems. Computers use them to run programs. Linux is totally free and open source, so users can improve or otherwise modify the source code. Windows is proprietary, so it costs money to use and users are prohibited from altering the source code.
4Text StructureCause/Effect – The reason something happens and the result, the result of something is explainedKey words – Cause – reason, effect- result, consequently, so, as a resultThe dodo bird used to roam in large flocks across America. Interestingly, the dodo wasn’t startled by gun shot. Because of this, frontiersmen would kill entire flocks in one sitting. Unable to sustain these attacks, the dodo was hunted to extinction.
5Text StructureProblem and Solution - a problem is described and a response or solution is proposed or explained.Key words – Problem- difficult, struggle, uncertainty, worry, threat, trouble Solution – possibility, hope bright spot, answer, and futureThousands of people die each year in car accidents involving drugs or alcohol. Lives could be saved if our town adopts a free public taxi service. By providing such a service, we could prevent intoxicated drivers from endangering themselves or others.
6Text StructureSequence - information is organized in steps or a process is explained in the order in which it occursKey words – first, then, nextEating cereal is easy. First, get out your materials. Next, pour your cereal in the bowl, add milk, and enjoy.
7Author’s PurposeTo Inform - give facts or true information about a subject, inform you on a topicOften called expository writing.Examples:• Biography of Barack Obama• News report about a shooting• Note to a friend• Essay about “killer bees”
8Author’s Purpose Persuade - writing attempts to influence the reader. Usually makes an argument.Examples:• Political speeches• Advertisements• A cover letter for your resume• An essay urging readers to recycle
9Author’s Purpose Entertain- telling a narrative (or stories) Have a beginning, middle, and endExamples of Writing to Entertain• Harry Potter books• Poems about love• Narrative essay about the big game• Script for a TV show
10PredictionMaking an educated guess about what may happen next in a text/passageRead the following story and look at the prediction below.Ben always had trouble getting up in the morning. His mother usually had to call him at least twice. He'd already been late for school three times this month. Mom had already called him once and now headed up to his room and knocked on the door. When he didn't respond she walked in and found him fast asleep!Prediction - Ben will be late for school.Clues - He had trouble waking up. He'd been late for school 3 times.Personal Experience - If you don't wake up in time, you'll be late for school.
11CharacterizationCharacterization is the process by which the writer reveals the personality of a character.Direct Characterization tells the audience what the personality of the character is.Example: “The patient boy and quiet girl were both well mannered and did not disobey their mother.” Explanation: The author is directly telling the audience the personality of these two children. The boy is “patient” and the girl is “quiet.”
12CharacterizationCharacterization is the process by which the writer reveals the personality of a character.Indirect characterization shows things that reveal he personality of a character. There are five different methods of indirect characterization:Speech What does the character say? How does the character speak?Thoughts What is revealed through the character’s private thoughts and feelings?Effect on others toward the character. What is revealed through the character’s effect on other people? How do other characters feel or behave in reaction to the character?Actions What does the character do? How does the character behave?Looks What does the character look like? How does the character dress?
13Characterization Indirect Example EXAMPLE: The girl strolled undetected toward the sandy expanse of the beach while her brother sprinted towards the water’s edge kicking up sand onto nearby sunbathers and startling people all around with the tunes blaring from his handheld radio.EXPLANATION: Although the author does not tell us that the girl is quiet and her brother is rambunctious, we can infer this through their actions.
14Characterization Practice Identify which passage is direct and which is indirect.A. Ed Johnson scratched his head in confusion as the sales rep explained Dralco’s newest engine performance diagnostic computer. The old mechanic hated modern electronics, preferring the old days when all he needed was a stack of manuals and a good set of tools. B. “That Ed Johnson,” said Anderson, watching the old mechanic scratch his head in confusion as the sales rep explained Dralco’s newest engine performance diagnostic computer. “He hasn’t got a clue about modern electronics. Give him a good set of tools and a stack of yellowing manuals with a carburetor needing repair, and he’d be happy as a hungry frog in a fly-field.”
15Characterization Practice Identify which passage is direct and which is indirect.A. Julie held up six different outfits in front of the mirror and pondered which would go best with her navy blue shoes, pastel eye shadow and the diamond earrings she’d already procured from her overflowing vanity. After ninety minutes of mixing and matching, and cell-phoning her sister three times for advice, Julie finally made up her mind. She’d give the navy blue skirt and white sweater a try, hoping Trent would love itB. Julie owned a multitude of outfits and accessories, and it always took her forever to decide which combination might impress Trent. As usual, she called her sister several times for advice. After doing so, Julie decided to give the navy blue skirt with the white sweater a try.
16Point of View Narrator – the person (character) telling the story First PersonThird Person limitedThird Person Omniscient
17Point of ViewFirst Person - The narrator tells “I” or “my” story. Also, this may be “we” or “our” story.Ex: We went to the store.
18Point of ViewThird Person Limited - The narrator tells “his” or “her” story and reveals one character’s thoughts or feelings. Ex: Sad that his girlfriend had left him, Ben wasn’t paying attention as he walked down the street. A man drove by and yelled, “Hey, watch where you’re going!”
19Point of ViewThird Person Omniscient – All-Knowing The narrator tells “his” or “her” story and reveals more than one character’s thoughts or feelings. Ex: Sad that his girlfriend had left him, Ben wasn’t paying attention as he walked down the street. Tom was also having a bad day, and as he was driving by Ben, Tom tried to startle him: “Hey, watch where you’re going!” Tom yelled intimidatingly.
20Research Thesis Statement A thesis sums up what the paper will tell the reader. It is not the topic. The topic is the subject of the paper, the thesis tells the reader something about the topic. The thesis should be at least one complete sentence, it must be logical, and the writer must make a claim that he or she can prove with the content of the paper.
21Research – Thesis Samples Topic: The Battle of GettysburgThesis: The Battle of Gettysburg changed the momentum of the Civil War.Topic: Mike PiazzaThesis: With his leadership skills, offensive output, and work ethic, Mike Piazza excels as the best Major League catcher in the history of baseball.Topic: BasketballThesis: Winning basketball games requires a solid team of skilled athletes, not just one superstar.
22ResearchSource – people or published material that provide information on the report’s topicBooksMagazinesNews castWebsite
23ResearchCitation“Main Entry: cite 2 : to quote by way of example, authority, or proof 3 a : to refer to; especially : to mention formally in commendation or praise b : to name in a citation 4 : to bring forward or call to another's attention especially as an example, proof, or precedent” (“cite”)To cite a source in a paper means that the writer has referred to a specific book, magazine, web site, or other source of information and is using information taken from that source in the paper (“cite”). The writer then directs the reader’s attention to a page at the end called a Works Cited page so that the reader knows where he or she can find that source.
25ResearchPlagiarism is…cheating or deception. If you attempt to use another person's work as if it were your own, without adequate acknowledgement of the original source; and if this is done in work that you submit for a grade then you are attempting to deceive your teacher, your parents, or anyone reading the paper. In other words, plagiarism is cheating and it is deceitful in that you are trying to claim the credit for something that is not your work.
26Give credit for copied, adapted, or paraphrased material. ResearchUse your own words and ideas.Give credit for copied, adapted, or paraphrased material.Avoid using others' work with minor "cosmetic" changes.There are no "freebies."Beware of "common knowledge."
27Reliability concerns the trustworthiness and believability of a source ResearchCredibility merely means that an author of a web site has credentials that prove he or she is knowledgeable in a field. After all, you don’t want information about your health provided by an electrician in Ohio who enjoys reading health guides during his lunch breaks!Reliability concerns the trustworthiness and believability of a source
28Affixes There are two kinds of word parts: affixes and roots. An affix is a word part that can be attached to either a root or a base word to create a new word.A root is a main or base word part that gives the word most of its meaning. They usually come from another language, such as Greek or Latin.
29AffixesAffixes can be divided into two categories: prefixes (appear at the beginning of words) and suffixes (appear at the end of words).Common PrefixesCommon SuffixesBi two-al adjectival suffixAnti against-fy verb suffixInter between-ic adjectival suffixPre before-ion noun suffixSuper above-ism noun suffixTrans across-ize verb suffixDis not-ous adjectival suffix
30Affixes Roots Affixes Latin Root: tang, meaning “touch” Prefix: in-, meaning “not”Greek Root: chrome, meaning “color”Suffix: -ible, meaing “able to”
31Sentences Complete Sentences Sentence Fragments 1 – capital letter2 – end punctuation3 – subject4 – verb5 – complete thoughtSentence FragmentsIncomplete sentence, missing a sentence part
32Sentences Comma – used to add separation or pause Multiple word description (fluffy, white cat)List (I like music, reading, and swimming.)Compound sentences and introductory phrasesI would like to go out with you, but I already have a boyfriend.As a result, you’re going to have to find another date.Colon – punctuation that introduces a list in a sentenceThere are many things I’d like to try: skydiving, bungee jumping, and white water rafting.
33Part of Speech Noun – person, place, thing Verb – action of the sentenceAdjective – describes a nounAdverb – modifies (describes) a verb
34AllusionReference to a well known person, place, event, art, or literatureTheir relationship was like the Titanic!The Hatfields and McCoys act like Romeo and Juliet’s families!
35Hyperbole An exaggeration Yeah, I already beat that game 80,000 years agoNobody listens to that song anymore.These shoes are killing me.
36Idiom Common phrase with multiple meanings Bob’s new corner office was just the icing on the cake.After eating candy, Billy ran around like a chick with his head cut off.That new car coast an arm and a leg.
37MetaphorComparison of two unlike things by stating that one is the otherThe cast on Michael’s broken leg was a plaster shackle.She as just a trophy to Ricardo, another object to possess.Her eyes were fireflies.Waves of spam s inundated his inbox.
38Personification Describing an object as if it were a person Thunder grumbled and raindrops reported for duty.The moon turned over to face the day.The traffic noises argued long into the night and finally Cal went to sleep.The angry storm pounded the tin shelter.
39Simile Comparing two unlike things using ‘like’ or ‘as’ My mother’s kitchen was like a holy place. You couldn’t wear your shoes, you had to sit there at a certain time, and occasionally we’d pray.The bottle rolled off the table like a teardrop.The handshake felt like warm laundry.She hung her head like a dying flower.Arguing with her was like dueling with hand grenades.
40The Rest of the review…Finish the exercises to get more familiar with skills needed for the testDO NOT FORGET TO STUDY!Exam has 2 parts – mine and benchmarkBe prepared, bring a pencil.