Growth and Trade Economic growth Gains from trade The evolution of trading arrangements
Economic Growth economic growth = expansion of production possibilities Why do production possibilities expand?
Economic Growth The two key factors that influence economic growth are: £ technological progress £ capital accumulation
Determinants of Economic Growth Technological progress (development of new and better ways to produce goods and services and development of new goods) Capital accumulation growth of capital resources
Economic Growth Economic growth in a factory Install more capital or adopt new technology
Economic Growth Economic growth in a household Invest in human capital (or other types of capital: buy a washing machine!)
Economic Growth Economic growth in a nation Invest in new technologies, and capital, including human capital,
Gains from trade Everyone gains from trade Trade is not a zero-sum game The source of gain is comparative advantage A person has a comparative advantage in producing a particular good if that person can produce the good at a lower opportunity cost than anyone else
Gains from trade Mark can produce jeans or skirts For Mark, 1 skirt costs 0.5 jeans Or, 1 pair of jeans costs 2 skirts
Gains from trade Marjorie can produce jeans or skirts For Marjorie, 1 skirt costs 0.08 jeans Or, 1 pair of jeans costs 12.5 skirts
Gains from trade Let’s look at these two PPFs on a single picture Suppose each produces the same quantities
Gains from trade How can they gain from trade? By specializing in the activity at which they have a comparative advantage
Gains from trade They can now exchange (trade) jeans and skirts. Suppose Marjorie sells Mark 12.5 thousand skirts for 2.5 thousand jeans
Gains from trade Mark now gets skirts at a cost of 0.2 pairs of jeans per skirt His opportunity cost of producing skirts is 0.5 pairs of jeans per skirt
Gains from trade Marjorie now gets jeans at a cost of 5 skirts per pair of jeans Her own opportunity cost of producing jeans is 12.5 skirts per pair of jeans
Gains from trade They each can operate outside their individual production possibilities frontiers
Evolution of trading arrangements Note that, just as in the example you have in your book These gains form a trade apply also when one of the traders has an absolute advantage in the production of both goods relative to the other person!
Liz's opportunity cost of producing 1 smoothie is 1 salad. Liz's opportunity cost of producing 1 salad is 1 smoothie. Gains from Trade: one person has the absolute advantage at making both goods Liz's Smoothie Bar In an hour, Liz can produce 40 smoothies or 40 salads. Liz’s customers buy salads and smoothies in equal number, so she produces 20 smoothies and 20 salads an hour.
Joe's opportunity cost of producing 1 smoothie is 5 salads. Joe's opportunity cost of producing 1 salad is 1/5 smoothie. Gains from Trade Joe's Smoothie Bar In an hour, Joe can produce 6 smoothies or 30 salads. Joe spends 10 minutes making salads and 50 minutes making smoothies, so he produces 5 smoothies and 5 salads an hour.
Gains from Trade £ Liz’s Absolute Advantage £ Absolute advantage £ When one person is more productive than another person in several or even all activities. £ Liz is four times as productive as Joe—Liz can produce 20 smoothies and 20 salads an hour and Joe can produce only 5 smoothies and 5 salads an hour.
Gains from Trade £ Liz’s Comparative Advantage £ Liz’s opportunity cost of a smoothie is 1 salad. £ Joe’s opportunity cost of a smoothie is 5 salads. £ Liz’s opportunity cost of a smoothie is less than Joe’s, so Liz has a comparative advantage in producing smoothies.
Gains from Trade £ Joe’s Comparative Advantage £ Joe’s opportunity cost of a salad is 1/5 smoothie. £ Liz’s opportunity cost of a salad is 1 smoothie. £ Joe’s opportunity cost of a salad is less than Liz’s, so Joe has a comparative advantage in producing salads.
Gains from Trade Achieving Gains from Trade £ Liz and Joe produce more of the good in which they have a comparative advantage: Liz produces 35 smoothies and 5 salads. Joe produces 30 salads.
Gains from Trade £ Liz and Joe trade: Liz sells Joe 10 smoothies and buys 20 salads. Joe sells Liz 20 salads and buys 10 smoothies. £ After trade: Liz has 25 smoothies and 10 salads. Joe has 25 smoothies and 10 salads.
£ Gains from trade: Liz gains 5 smoothies and 5 salads an hour— she originally produced 20 smoothies and 20 salads. Joe gains 5 smoothies and 5 salads an hour— he originally produced 5 smoothies and 5 salads. Gains from Trade
Gains From Trade Dynamic Comparative Advantage £ Learning-by-doing occurs when a person (or nation) specializes and by repeatedly producing a particular good or service becomes more productive in that activity and lowers its opportunity cost of producing that good over time. £ Dynamic comparative advantage occurs when a person (or nation) gains a comparative advantage from learning-by- doing.
Evolution of trading arrangements Trade between nations is similar to trade between Mark and Marjorie Trade among millions of people has evolved social mechanisms and institutions to facilitate that trade £ markets £ property rights £ money
Property rights are social arrangements that regulate the ownership, use and disposal of resources. A market is any institution that enables buyers and sellers to get information and trade with each other. They help co-ordinate individual decisions through price adjustments.