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1Laura A. Janda University of North Carolina email@example.com “Prototypical and non-prototypical expressions of transitivity in Russian”Laura A. JandaUniversity of North Carolina
2Our tasks:Motivate transitivity as an abstraction grounded in human physical experienceFind the prototype and relations to the prototypeFigure out what properties of the prototype are more important than othersThink about what makes a construction transitive – the grammatical devices it uses or its meaning?
3Things we won’t do:Look at ALL possible constructions (but we will look at a lot of them)Find a precise boundary between transitive and intransitive
4Advantages to this type of analysis Gives an accurate picture of the true complexity of transitivityFocuses attention on the interaction of semantics and syntaxMotivates some specific constraints on constructionsProvides a hierarchy of constructions, predicting what combinations of constructions can exist in a languageProvides a basis for cross-linguistic comparison
5The structure of a construction (Croft 2001: 204)
6Conceptual space for transitivity (Croft 2001: 147)
8A little bit about Russian… Six cases:NominativeAccusativeDativeInstrumentalGenitiveLocativeRelatively free word orderIf N is present, V agrees with itIf N is absent, V has default (neuter singular) agreement
9“Bare case” meanings for the four cases we will focus on: Accusative:a destinationDative:a receiver, an experiencer, a competitorInstrumental:a means, a labelGenitive:a source, a goal, a reference, a whole
10The prototypical transitive construction = Langacker’s canonical eventN+V+AДевушка сшила юбку.[Girl-N sewed skirt-A.]‘The girl sewed a skirt.’Agent – PatientPrototypical transitive verbs focus energy on a patient, involve “doing something to X”
11The prototypical intransitive construction N+VМальчик спит.[Boy-N sleeps.]‘The boy is sleeping.’AgentPrototypical intransitive verbs describe states, emotions, or are reflexive
12Three Strategies 1: Add items to the N+V+A construction 2: Change A and N to other cases3: Remove items from the N+V+A construction (and its enlargements)
13Strategy 1: Adding items to the N+V+A construction We can add:a preposition: N+V+P+Aa prepositional phrase: N+V+A+P+L/G/A…a Dative participant: N+V+A+Dan Instrumental participant: N+V+A+IGenerally this strategy does not do much harm to transitivity
14Some N+V+A constructions require a preposition N+V+P+AЛюбой спортсмен надеется на победу.[Every athlete-N hopes for victory-A.]‘Every athlete hopes for victory.’Compare N+V+A:Каждый клуб хочет победу.[Every club-N wants victory-A.]‘Every club wants victory.’These are a little worse, but pretty good, and Croft defends the integration of adpositions into verbal constructions…
15Adding a prepositional phrase is no problem: N+V+A+P+GДевушка сшила юбку из старого пальто.[Girl-N sewed skirt-A from old coat-G.]‘The girl sewed a skirt from an old coat.’N+V+A+P+LДевушка сшила юбку на машинке.[Girl-N sewed skirt-A on machine-L.]‘The girl sewed a skirt on a machine.’N+V+A+P+AДевушка принесла юбку в школу.[Girl-N brought skirt-A to school-A.]‘The girl brought a skirt to school.’
16Adding a Dative participant is ok: N+V+A+DЛюдмила Путина сшила мужу костюм.[Ludmila Putin-N sewed husband-D suit-A.]‘Ludmila Putin sewed her husband a suit.’
17Adding an instrumental participant is also ok: N+V+A+IДевушка резала рыбу ножом.[Girl-N cut fish-A knife-I.]‘The girl cut the fish with a knife.’
18Strategy 2: Changing A and N to other participants Here are the options for changing A:N+V+P+LN+V+GN+V+DN+V+IN+V+NHere is the option for changing N:D+V+A
19Changing A to a prepositional phrase N+V+P+LЛукашенко признался в убийстве.[Lukashenko-N confessed in murder-L.]‘Lukashenko confessed to murder.’Compare N+V+A:Лукашенко признал свою вину.[Lukashenko-N admitted own guilt-A.]‘Lukashenko admitted his guilt.’
20However, MOST N+V+P+L is unambiguously intransitive Мама работает в кабинете.[Mother-N works in office-L.]‘Mother is working in her office.’
21What if we change Accusative to Genitive? N+V+GРахманинов избегал всяких интервью.[Rakhmaninov-N avoided all interviews-G.]‘Rakhmaninov avoided all interviews.’N+V+G involves: verbs expressing avoidance (fear, aversion = G a source), or approach (attaining, needing, expecting = G a goal), or quantification (=G a whole)
22Where do we draw the line between N+V+A and N+V+G? Both constructions show an interaction between N+V and an object.N+V+G de-emphasizes the effect of N+V on the object, which is merely a reference point for the situation.Nearly all verbs associated with N+V+G can also be constructed as N+V+A. Sometimes there is a meaning difference, and sometimes there isn’t.
23Compare N+V+G to N+V+A Игорь ищет жены. ‘Igor is looking for a wife.’ Игорь выпил чаю.‘Igor drank (some) tea.’Игорь боится жены.‘Igor is afraid of his wife.’Игорь ищет жену.‘Igor is looking for his wife.’Игорь выпил чай.‘Igor drank (all the) tea.’Игорь боится жену.‘Igor is afraid of his wife.’
24What if we change Accusative to Dative? N+V+DМальчик ей улыбнулся.[Boy-N her-D smiled.]‘The boy smiled at her.’N+V+D involves many verbs where the object is a receiver, experiencer, or competitor/submitter
25The continuum from ditransitive to N+V+D Людмила сказала ему свое имя.[Ludmila-N said him-D her name-A.]‘Ludmila told him her name.’Людмила сказала ему «вы».[Ludmila-N said him-D “vy”.]‘Ludmila said “vy” to him.’Людмила ему выкала.[Ludmila-N him-D vy-said.]‘Ludmila addressed him formally.’
26N+V+D constructions related to “giving”: позвонить ‘ring’ + communication verbsзаплатить ‘pay’ + gift/money verbsпомогать ‘help’ + “benefit” verbsнаскучить ‘bore’ + “harm” verbsThese constructions are motivated as versions of N+V+A+D in which A is implicit in the verb.
27N+V+D constructions related to “competition”: сопутствовать ‘accompany’ + “equality” verbsподчиниться ‘submit to’+ “submission” verbsThese verbs are motivated by the comparison of the actual subjecthood of N with the potential subjecthood of D.
28But where do we draw the line between N+V+A and N+V+D? In both constructions N has impact on D.They differ in that D places greater emphasis on the ability of the object to react to N+V.However, it is very easy to find N+V+D clauses that are nearly synonymous with N+V+A, and this is true of both types of constructions (motivated by “giving” and by “competition”).
29Compare N+V+D to N+V+A Я заплатила адвокату. ‘I paid a lawyer.’ ‘I helped him.’Он наскучил жене.‘He bored his wife.’Он сопутствовал eй.‘He accompanied her.’Он подчинился жене.‘He submitted to his wife.’Я наняла адвокатa.‘I hired a lawyer.’Я защищала его.‘I protected him.’Он раздражал жену.‘He irritated his wife.’Он всретил ee.‘He met her.’Он избаловал жену.‘He spoiled his wife.’
30What if we change Accusative to Instrumental? N+V+IОн улетит следующим рейсом.[He-N fliesaway next flight-I.]‘He leaves on the next flight.’This seems hopelessly intransitive.
31Types of verbs associated with Instrumental: a means махать ‘wave’ + movement verbsкомадовать ‘command’+ leadership verbsвладеть ‘possess’ + possession verbsснабдить ‘supply’ + manipulation verbsзаниматься ‘occupy’ + filling verbsнаслаждаться ‘enjoy’ + enjoy/abhor verbsThese verbs are motivated as requiring some object through which they are channeled.
32But where do we draw the line between N+V+A and N+V+I? In both constructions N’s energy affects an object.N+V+I de-emphasizes the impact of N+V on the object, which serves merely as a conduit for the action.For the movement verbs sometimes the same verb can be constructed as both N+V+A and N+V+I (with some meaning differences), other types of I verbs may have close synonyms with N+V+A.
33Compare N+V+I with N+V+A Я бросал(ся) камнями.‘I threw stones.’Я хлопнул дверью.‘I slammed the door.’Он командовал солдатами.‘He commanded the soldiers.’Я бросал камни.‘I threw stones.’Я закрыл дверь.‘I shut the door.’Он вел солдат.‘He led the soldiers.’
34Types of verbs associated with Instrumental: a label: N+V+IПочему я не родилась мужчиной?[Why I-N not born man-I?]‘Why wasn’t I born a man?’The group of verbs that expresses being, seeming, and becoming is motivated as expressing a category label that mediates the expression of an entity. These show no overlap with transitivity.
35N+V+N is quite hopeless Отец был человек глубоко верующий.[Father-N was person-N deeply religious-N.]‘Father was a deeply religious person.’Copular BE is the only V acceptable, and there is no transitivity here.
36Let’s change N to D D+V+A Что нам делать? [What-A us-D do?] ‘What are we to do?’Here the Dative, as a potential subject, has an experience of the situation, rather than being an agent.
37Strategy 3: Removing items from the transitive construction Most constructions so far have N (and personal V agreement).It is possible to remove N from all of these constructions, in which case we have impersonal, default agreement for V (neuter sg)It is sometimes possible to remove V, but an implicit verb remains.
38What do we get when we remove items from transitive constructions? From N+V+A:V+AN+AAFrom N+V+A+I:V+A+IFrom N+V+A+D:A+D(Bold-facedconstructions arerobustly productive;others are restricted andhave implicit V)
39Let’s remove N from N+V+A Меня тошнит.[Me-A be-sick.]‘I feel sick’(Very productive! See examples on handout)
40Other removals from N+V+A N+AКто кого?[Who-N who-A?]‘Who will get whom?’A(Я сказал:) "Деньги!"; (Игорь сказал:) "На руку!"[Money-A!; Here hand-A!](I said:) “Money!”; (Igor said:) “Here, take my hand!”
41Let’s remove N from N+V+A+I Москвича убило сосулькой.[Muscovite-A killed icicle-I.]‘A Muscovite was killed by an icicle.’See further examples on handout. Note close connection to V+A.
42A benefit of looking at a semantic map of constructions The relationship between N+V+A+I and V+A+I explains why you cannot have a sentence like:*Москвича убило солдатом.[Muscovite-A killed soldier-I.]‘A Muscovite was killed by a soldier.’
43Let’s remove items from N+V+A+D Кому что?[Who-D what-A?]‘Who gets what/What is for whom?’
44Adding, Changing, and Removing These three parameters suggest a semantic map for relationships among constructionsBy exploring these relationships we have explored the structure of transitivity in Russian
46Note features of the radial category: Shows the structuring of relationships between constructionsMotivates relationships even among constructions that share no participants (e.g., N+V+G and V+A+I)Presents a correlation between prototypicality and order of appearance of constructions
47What does cognitive linguistics give us? Structure of relationships among constructionsSense of which types are prototypical which aren’t , and which must exist before others existBasis for cross-linguistic comparison – semantic map of transitivity
48BibliographyCroft, William Radical Construction Grammar. Oxford: Oxford U Press.Janda, Laura A. and Steven J. Clancy The Case Book for Russian. Columbus, Ohio: Slavica.Langacker, Ronald W Foundations of Cognitive Grammar, v. II. Stanford: Stanford U Press.Smith, Michael B “Agreement and iconicity in Russian Impersonal Constructions”. Cognitive Linguistics 5, 5-56.