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Amphibians of Florida. Amphibians Moist glandular skin (NO SCALES!)Moist glandular skin (NO SCALES!) Pass (aquatic) larval stage as youngPass (aquatic)

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Presentation on theme: "Amphibians of Florida. Amphibians Moist glandular skin (NO SCALES!)Moist glandular skin (NO SCALES!) Pass (aquatic) larval stage as youngPass (aquatic)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Amphibians of Florida

2 Amphibians Moist glandular skin (NO SCALES!)Moist glandular skin (NO SCALES!) Pass (aquatic) larval stage as youngPass (aquatic) larval stage as young –Amphibios – From the Greek meaning “living a double life” Toes without clawsToes without claws Made up of three Orders:Made up of three Orders: –Anura (frogs & toads) –Caudata (salamanders) –Gymnophiona (caecilians)

3 Order Anura FROGS!!!!FROGS!!!! Thick head and body with long, strong legsThick head and body with long, strong legs Often advertise presence (especially during the breeding season) with a wide range of callsOften advertise presence (especially during the breeding season) with a wide range of calls

4 Family Bufonidae Toads!Toads! Have dry, glandular (warty) skinHave dry, glandular (warty) skin HopHop

5 Bufo marinus EXOTIC! (South America)EXOTIC! (South America) Huge sizeHuge size Skin gland secretions can be highly toxicSkin gland secretions can be highly toxic Marine Toad / Giant Toad / Cane ToadMarine Toad / Giant Toad / Cane Toad

6 Bufo quercicus Tiny sizeTiny size Conspicuous, light middorsal stripeConspicuous, light middorsal stripe Oak ToadOak Toad Photo By: J. Jensen

7 Bufo terrestris Large knobs & high cranial crestsLarge knobs & high cranial crests Extremely abundantExtremely abundant Southern ToadSouthern Toad Photo By: J. Jensen Photo By: T. Blunden

8 Family Hylidae Cricket Frogs, Treefrogs & Chorus Frogs!Cricket Frogs, Treefrogs & Chorus Frogs! Acris HylaPseudacris Many species have enlarged, round toepadsMany species have enlarged, round toepads Mostly relatively small-sizedMostly relatively small-sized Known for their wide variety of vocalizationsKnown for their wide variety of vocalizations

9 Acris gryllus Small size with slightly warty skinSmall size with slightly warty skin Often bright green Y between eyes extends down the backOften bright green Y between eyes extends down the back In Florida, back of thigh has two dark stripesIn Florida, back of thigh has two dark stripes Southern Cricket FrogSouthern Cricket Frog Photo By: W. Knapp

10 Hyla avivoca Greyish overall coloration with white spot under eyeGreyish overall coloration with white spot under eye Inner sides of thigh with greenish- yellowish washInner sides of thigh with greenish- yellowish wash Similar to but smaller than Hyla chrysoscelisSimilar to but smaller than Hyla chrysoscelis Bird-voiced TreefrogBird-voiced Treefrog Photos By: W. Knapp

11 Hyla chrysoscelis Greyish overall coloration with white spot under the eyeGreyish overall coloration with white spot under the eye Inner thighs with orange – yellow washInner thighs with orange – yellow wash Similar to but larger than Hyla avivocaSimilar to but larger than Hyla avivoca Cope’s Gray TreefrogCope’s Gray Treefrog Photo By: W. Knapp

12 Hyla cineria Long body shapeLong body shape Well defined light lateral lineWell defined light lateral line Many have tiny golden spots on their backsMany have tiny golden spots on their backs Green Treefrog Photo By: T. Blunden

13 Hyla femoralis Very variable overall coloration (grey, green, brown, patterned, uniform etc)Very variable overall coloration (grey, green, brown, patterned, uniform etc) Pine Woods TreefrogPine Woods Treefrog Photos By: W. Kapp Bright yellow-orange spots on inside of thigh (femoralis….)Bright yellow-orange spots on inside of thigh (femoralis….) Photo By: W. Knapp

14 Hyla gratiosa Large round spots on backLarge round spots on back Rugose skinRugose skin Large sizeLarge size Large toepadsLarge toepads Dependent on fishless, ephemeral ponds for breedingDependent on fishless, ephemeral ponds for breeding Barking TreefrogBarking Treefrog Photo By: T. Blunden

15 Hyla squirrela Rule out other frogs first!Rule out other frogs first! Extremely variable overall colorationExtremely variable overall coloration No strong inner thigh markingsNo strong inner thigh markings Extremely common, even in residential areasExtremely common, even in residential areas Squirrel TreefrogSquirrel Treefrog Photo By: J. Jensen

16 Osteopilus septentrionalis Introduced speciesIntroduced species Large!!Large!! Forehead skin fused to boneForehead skin fused to bone Usually a yellow wash near groinUsually a yellow wash near groin Often found in urban/suburban environments, but can also invades natural areasOften found in urban/suburban environments, but can also invades natural areas Range is still expanding northward.Range is still expanding northward. CubanTreefrogCubanTreefrog

17 Pseudacris crucifer Dark imperfect “X” marking on backDark imperfect “X” marking on back Pinkish, yellowish, brown or grey background colorPinkish, yellowish, brown or grey background color Early winter breederEarly winter breeder Spring PeeperSpring Peeper Photo By: J. Jensen

18 Pseudacris nigrita Three dorsal stripes (tend to break up near groin)Three dorsal stripes (tend to break up near groin) Prominent white lip lineProminent white lip line Southern Chorus FrogSouthern Chorus Frog Photo By: W. Kapp Photo By: J. Jensen

19 19 Pseudacris ocularis Smallest Frog in North AmericaSmallest Frog in North America Prominent dark line through eye (ocularis...)Prominent dark line through eye (ocularis...) Usually found in small grassy wetlandsUsually found in small grassy wetlands Little Grass FrogLittle Grass Frog Photo By: T. Blunden

20 Pseudacris ornata Black mask-like stripe through eyeBlack mask-like stripe through eye Ornate Chorus FrogOrnate Chorus Frog Dark spots on sides & near groinDark spots on sides & near groin Photo By: A. Day

21 Family Leptodactylidae 1,110 species including 700 in the genus Eleutherodactylus (largest vertebrate genus)1,110 species including 700 in the genus Eleutherodactylus (largest vertebrate genus) Usually smallUsually small Mostly TropicalMostly Tropical

22 Eleutherodactylus planirostrus Introduced speciesIntroduced species Small terrestrial frogSmall terrestrial frog Call is very insect likeCall is very insect like Undergoes metamorphosis in the egg (there is no free swimming larvae)Undergoes metamorphosis in the egg (there is no free swimming larvae) Greenhouse Frog Greenhouse Frog Photo By: T. Blunden

23 Family Microhylidae Narrow-mouthed frogsNarrow-mouthed frogs (Also known as Sheepfrogs) Characterized by skin fold across back of headCharacterized by skin fold across back of head Specialize on beetles, ants & ant lionsSpecialize on beetles, ants & ant lions

24 Gastrophryne carolinensis Tiny, pointy head, fat round bodyTiny, pointy head, fat round body Skin fold on back of headSkin fold on back of head Eastern Narrowmouth ToadEastern Narrowmouth Toad Photo By: W. Kapp

25 Family Pelobatidae American SpadefootsAmerican Spadefoots Use single, bladelike spade on back feet to burrow rapidly down in loose soilUse single, bladelike spade on back feet to burrow rapidly down in loose soil Explosive breeders after heavy rainsExplosive breeders after heavy rains

26 Scaphiophus holbrookii Horny black spade on hind footHorny black spade on hind foot Vertical pupilVertical pupil Pale lyre / hourglass shape on dark backPale lyre / hourglass shape on dark back Eastern Spadefoot ToadEastern Spadefoot Toad Photo By: W. Kapp Photo By: A. Day Photo By: W. Knapp

27 Family Ranidae True frogs!True frogs! Typical frogs with long legs, narrow waists and smooth, moist skinTypical frogs with long legs, narrow waists and smooth, moist skin Many have dorsolateral foldsMany have dorsolateral folds LeapLeap Found on all continents except AntarticaFound on all continents except Antartica Source of culinary frog legsSource of culinary frog legs

28 Rana capito Short body, pointy snoutShort body, pointy snout Light background color with large dark spotsLight background color with large dark spots Found in xeric uplandsFound in xeric uplands Usually uses Gopher Tortoise burrows as refugiaUsually uses Gopher Tortoise burrows as refugia Gopher FrogGopher Frog Photo By: T. Blunden

29 Rana catesbiana Mostly plain green or brown aboveMostly plain green or brown above No dorsolateral ridgesNo dorsolateral ridges Some mottling belowSome mottling below Webbing on 4 th hind toes does not fully extend to tipWebbing on 4 th hind toes does not fully extend to tip Bull FrogBull Frog Photo By: J. Jensen Photo by T. Blunden

30 Rana clamitans Plain brown/bronzy backPlain brown/bronzy back Incomplete dorsolateral ridgesIncomplete dorsolateral ridges Center of tympanum elevatedCenter of tympanum elevated Green / Bronze FrogGreen / Bronze Frog Photo By: J. Jensen

31 Rana grylio Large, plain frog, very sim. to R. catesbianaLarge, plain frog, very sim. to R. catesbiana Webbing on 4 th hind toes extends fully to tipWebbing on 4 th hind toes extends fully to tip No dorsolateral ridgesNo dorsolateral ridges Pig FrogPig Frog Photo By: T. Lamb

32 Rana heckscheri Large, greenish black frog with light spots on the lipsLarge, greenish black frog with light spots on the lips No dorsolateral ridgesNo dorsolateral ridges Dark below with light markingsDark below with light markings River FrogRiver Frog Photo By: A. Day

33 Rana sphenocephala Green or brown frog with darker spotsGreen or brown frog with darker spots Strong dorsolateral ridges, often light coloredStrong dorsolateral ridges, often light colored Light spot in center of tympanumLight spot in center of tympanum Southern / Florida Leopard FrogSouthern / Florida Leopard Frog Called Rana utricularia in Peterson’s Field GuideCalled Rana utricularia in Peterson’s Field Guide Photo By: D. Stevenson

34 Order Caudata SALAMANDERS!!!!SALAMANDERS!!!! The Americas have more salamanders than the rest of the world combined, and the southeastern US has more salamanders than anywhere else in North America.The Americas have more salamanders than the rest of the world combined, and the southeastern US has more salamanders than anywhere else in North America.

35 Family Ambystomatidae Mole salamanders!Mole salamanders! FossorialFossorial Tend to be stout with large headsTend to be stout with large heads

36 Ambystoma cingulatum Medium background color with lighter, netlike patternMedium background color with lighter, netlike pattern Rare speciesRare species Inhabitant of longleaf pine- wiregrass flatwoods with cypress headsInhabitant of longleaf pine- wiregrass flatwoods with cypress heads Dependent on fishless ponds to breedDependent on fishless ponds to breed Flatwoods SalamanderFlatwoods Salamander Photo By: J. Jensen

37 Ambystoma talpoidium Chunky body with large headChunky body with large head Dark overall coloration with bluish-grey flecksDark overall coloration with bluish-grey flecks Mole SalamanderMole Salamander Photos By: J. Jensen

38 Family Amphiumidae Eel-likeEel-like Tiny front AND back legsTiny front AND back legs No external gillsNo external gills

39 Amphiuma means Eel-like, LARGEEel-like, LARGE Four tiny legs with two toes eachFour tiny legs with two toes each Almost completely aquatic, but may move overland on extremely wet nights in flooded areasAlmost completely aquatic, but may move overland on extremely wet nights in flooded areas Two-toed Amphiuma, congo eel, conger eel, lamper eel, ditch eelTwo-toed Amphiuma, congo eel, conger eel, lamper eel, ditch eel Photo By: J. Jensen Photo By: K. Sorenson

40 Family Plethodontidae Lungless salamanders!Lungless salamanders! Respire through the skinRespire through the skin Tend to be slender with long tailsTend to be slender with long tails Have a nasolabial grooveHave a nasolabial groove Found most commonly in areas with some kind of running water (streams, seeps, springs & waterfalls)Found most commonly in areas with some kind of running water (streams, seeps, springs & waterfalls)

41 Desmognathus apalachicola pairs of light, often coalescing dorsal spots w/ black fringes10-14 pairs of light, often coalescing dorsal spots w/ black fringes Belly pure whiteBelly pure white Apalachicola Dusky SalamanderApalachicola Dusky Salamander

42 42 Desmognathus auriculatus Dark overallDark overall Series of “portholes” along sides of body and tailSeries of “portholes” along sides of body and tail Associated with cypress ponds and stagnant poolsAssociated with cypress ponds and stagnant pools Southern Dusky SalamanderSouthern Dusky Salamander Photo by: B. Means

43 Eurycea cirrigera Two dark lines bordering yellowish middorsal stripeTwo dark lines bordering yellowish middorsal stripe Tail longer than bodyTail longer than body Five toes on hind feetFive toes on hind feet Southern Two-lined SalamanderSouthern Two-lined Salamander Photo By: J. Jensen

44 Eurycea longicauda Three dark stripes on yellow backgroundThree dark stripes on yellow background Tail longer than bodyTail longer than body Five toes on hind feetFive toes on hind feet Three-lined SalamanderThree-lined Salamander (listed as Eurycea longicauda guttolineatta in Peterson’s) Photo By: J. Jensen

45 Eurycea quadridigittata Very tiny sizeVery tiny size Four toes on hind feetFour toes on hind feet Three dark stripes on lighter backgroundThree dark stripes on lighter background Dwarf SalamanderDwarf Salamander Photo By: D. Stevenson

46 Plethodon grobmani Long, skinny, mostly black salamander with light flecksLong, skinny, mostly black salamander with light flecks Distinct costal groovesDistinct costal grooves Southeastern Slimy Salamander (part of P.glutinosus complex)Southeastern Slimy Salamander (part of P.glutinosus complex)

47 Pseudotriton montanus Plain rusty brown color abovePlain rusty brown color above Pale venter with sparse dark specklesPale venter with sparse dark speckles Eastern / Rusty Mud Salamander (listed as P. m. floridanus in guide)Eastern / Rusty Mud Salamander (listed as P. m. floridanus in guide) Photo By: W. Van Devender

48 Pseudotriton ruber Reddish orange above with white flecking, esp. concentrated on headReddish orange above with white flecking, esp. concentrated on head Belly pale with many small black specklesBelly pale with many small black speckles Red SalamanderRed Salamander (ours listed as P. r. vioscai in guide) (ours listed as P. r. vioscai in guide) Photo By: J. Jensen

49 Family Salamandridae Newts!Newts! Terrestrial stage with rough, glandular skinTerrestrial stage with rough, glandular skin Some species may have complicated life cycles:Some species may have complicated life cycles: Egg  Larva  Eft  Adult AQUATIC AQUATIC TERRESTRIAL AQUATIC AQUATIC AQUATIC TERRESTRIAL AQUATIC

50 Notopthalmus perstriatus Small with rough skinSmall with rough skin Light colored with dark spotsLight colored with dark spots Red dorsolateral stripes (faint on specimen – look hard!)Red dorsolateral stripes (faint on specimen – look hard!) Dependent on fishless ponds to breed – RAREDependent on fishless ponds to breed – RARE Striped NewtStriped Newt Photos By: J. Jensen

51 Notopthamus viridiscens Small with rough skinSmall with rough skin Dusky colored with lighter orange, yellow, or red spotsDusky colored with lighter orange, yellow, or red spots Pale belly with many dark flecksPale belly with many dark flecks Eastern NewtEastern Newt Photo By: R. Birkhead Photo By: J. Jensen

52 Family Sirenidae Highly aquaticHighly aquatic Eel-like, but with substantial front legsEel-like, but with substantial front legs No hind legsNo hind legs External, bushy gillsExternal, bushy gills

53 Siren intermedia NO HIND LIMBSNO HIND LIMBS Eel-like with bushy gillsEel-like with bushy gills Large front limbsLarge front limbs Medium sizeMedium size Highly aquaticHighly aquatic Lesser SirenLesser Siren Photo By: J. Jensen

54 Siren lacertina Eel-like with bushy gillsEel-like with bushy gills NO HIND LEGSNO HIND LEGS Large, well developed front limbsLarge, well developed front limbs Large sizeLarge size Highly aquaticHighly aquatic Greater SirenGreater Siren Photo By: J. Jensen

55 Questions? Photo By: T. Blunden


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