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United States Foreign Policy

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Presentation on theme: "United States Foreign Policy"— Presentation transcript:

1 United States Foreign Policy
Unit 6: Part I

2 Unit 6: United States Foreign Policy, 1920s, Great Depression, and the New Deal Philadelphia Press. Ten Thousand Miles from Tip to Tip Use your Primary Source Analysis Guide for Cartoons.

3 Unit 6: United States Foreign Policy, 1920s, Great Depression, and the New Deal Zimmerman, Arthur. Telegram Use your Primary Source Analysis Guide for Documents. On the first of February, we intend to begin unrestricted submarine warfare. In spite of this, it is our intention to endeavor to keep the United States of America neutral. In the event of this not succeeding, we propose an alliance on the following basis with Mexico: That we shall make war together and make peace together. We shall give generous financial support, and an understanding on our part that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona. The details of settlement are left to you. In January of 1917, British cryptographers deciphered a telegram from German Foreign Minister Arthur Zimmermann to the German Minister to Mexico, von Eckhardt, offering United States territory to Mexico in return for joining the German cause. This message helped draw the United States into the war and thus changed the course of history. The telegram had such an impact on American opinion that, according to David Kahn, author of The Codebreakers, "No other single cryptanalysis has had such enormous consequences." It is his opinion that "never before or since has so much turned upon the solution of a secret message." In an effort to protect their intelligence from detection and to capitalize on growing anti-German sentiment in the United States, the British waited until February 24 to present the telegram to Woodrow Wilson. The American press published news of the telegram on March 1. On April 6, 1917, the United States Congress formally declared war on Germany and its allies.

4 What is Foreign Policy? How a country deals with other countries
foreign relations policy, consists of self-interest strategies chosen by the state to safeguard its national interests and to achieve its goals within international relations milieu.[citation needed] The approaches are strategically employed to interact with other countries. In recent times, due to the deepening level of globalization and transnational activities, the states will also have to interact with non-state actors.

5 Isolationism Why did the United States follow a policy of Isolationism in the 1800s? The first foreign policy in the United States (Monroe Doctrine) When a country doesn’t get involved in the affairs of other countries

6 Industrialization and Isolationism
After the U.S. Civil War, Cyrus Field attempted to create a transatlantic telegraph cable under the Bering Strait In 1854 Field began the quest to lay a telegraphic cable across the Atlantic Ocean. After several failed attempts, in August 1858 Field arranged for Queen Victoria to send the first transatlantic message to President James Buchanan, and New York erupted in celebrations, lauding Field, telegraph inventor Samuel F. B. Morse, modern technology, and American ingenuity in general. But the cable broke after just three weeks, and Field did not complete his project until 1866. The Bering Strait

7 1867: Alaska Secretary of State William Seward negotiated the sale of AK $7,200,000 or 2¢ per acre “Russian America” “Seward’s Folly” The purchase of Alaska in 1867 marked the end of Russian efforts to expand trade and settlements to the Pacific coast of North America, and became an important step in the United States rise as a great power in the Asia-Pacific region. The looming U.S. Civil War delayed the sale, but after the war, Secretary of State William Seward quickly took up a renewed Russian offer and on March 30, 1867, agreed to a proposal from Russian Minister in Washington, Edouard de Stoeckl, to purchase Alaska for $7.2 million. Skeptics had dubbed the purchase of Alaska "Seward's Folly," but the former Secretary of State was vindicated when a major gold deposit was discovered in the Yukon in 1896, and Alaska became the gateway to the Klondike gold fields. The strategic importance of Alaska was finally recognized in World War II.

8 Imperialism When a country tries to dominate another country
Some European countries practiced imperialism in the 1800s by taking over the governments of other countries. mperialism, although a process of accumulation and acquisition of land, resources, labor, and profit, is supported by an ideology (a way of thinking; a philosophy) that suggests that certain peoples and certain territories require domination, assistance, “civilization.” Profit and hopes of further profit was the overwhelming goal of empire. Behind this goal, however, was the belief – and the justification – that distant lands and their peoples should be subjugated, and that the empire had the duty to rule “less advanced” peoples (“less-advanced” being defined by European standards: industrialization, the nation-state, etc.) Political Power (Territory, Natural Resources) Imperialistic Country

9 Was the United States Imperialistic?

10 Hawaiian Sugar Plantation
Hawaiian Benevolence 1830s: Britain and France forced Hawaii to extend “privileges” 1842: U.S. reaffirmed that European colonization was not welcome in the Americas 1849: Treaty of friendship between the U.S. and Hawaii 1875: U.S. Sugar producers moved into Hawaii mericans acquired a true foothold in Hawaii as a result of the SUGAR TRADE. The United States government provided generous terms to Hawaiian sugar growers, and after the Civil War, profits began to swell. A turning point in U.S.-Hawaiian relations occurred in 1890, when Congress approved the MCKINLEY TARIFF, which raised import rates on foreign sugar. Hawaiian sugar planters were now being undersold in the American market, and as a result, a depression swept the islands. The sugar growers, mostly white Americans, knew that if Hawaii were to be ANNEXED by the United States, the tariff problem would naturally disappear. At the same time, the Hawaiian throne was passed to QUEEN LILIUOKALANI, who determined that the root of Hawaii's problems was foreign interference. A great showdown was about to unfold. Hawaiian Sugar Plantation

11 Hawaiian Aggression 1893: U.S. deposed Queen Liliuokalani (fear of high sugar tariffs) Samuel Dole and sailors from the USS Boston surrounded the palace Clip The United States was the biggest market for Hawaii's sugar. The transplanted planters longed for Hawaii to become part of the United States so they wouldn't have to worry about tariffs. The U.S. minister to Hawaii, John L. Stevens, was anxious to annex the islands as well. Sensing this, Queen Liliuokalani was on the verge of imposing a new Constitution shifting power back to the monarchy - but she never got the chance. On Jan. 16, 1893, U.S. Marines landed in Honolulu armed with Howitzer cannons and carbines. A group of 18 men - mostly American sugar farmers - staged a coup, proclaiming themselves the "provisional government" of Hawaii. Stevens gave immediate recognition to them as Hawaii's true government. Imprisoned in Iolani Palace, Queen Liliuokalani issued a statement: "I yield to the superior force of the United States of America, whose minister, his excellency John L. Stevens, has caused United States troops to be landed at Honolulu. ... Now, to avoid any collision of armed forces and perhaps the loss of life, I do, under this protest, and impelled by said force, yield my authority until such time as the government of the United States shall undo the action of its representative and reinstate me." President Grover Cleveland investigated the coup and fired Stevens. He apologized to the queen. And on Dec. 18, 1893, he briefed Congress on his findings: "By an act of war, committed with the participation of a diplomatic representative of the United States and without authority of Congress, the government of a feeble but friendly and confiding people has been overthrown," Cleveland said. "A substantial wrong has thus been done, which a due regard for our national character, as well as the rights of the injured people, requires we should endeavor to repair." Cleveland refused to approve the annexation of Hawaii. Soon, however, he was out of office, and President William McKinley gave it his blessing. Said Sam Monet, a staunch independence proponent: "The Kingdom of Hawaii has never ceased to exist. No peace treaty between the U.S. and the kingdom of Hawaii has been signed. A state of war between the U.S. and the kingdom of Hawaii exists today."

12 President Benjamin Harrison encouraged the coup.
Hawaiian Controversy “I am ashamed of the whole affair.” President Grover Cleveland opposed the takeover and tried to restore the Queen. President Benjamin Harrison encouraged the coup. President William McKinley annexed Hawaii in 1898, aroused by nationalism spurred from the Spanish-American War.

13 1898: Spanish-American War
The United States fought for Cuban Independence from Spain. At the end of the war, the United States acquired protectorates: Guam The Spanish–American War was a conflict in 1898 between Spain and the United States, effectively the result of American intervention in the ongoing Cuban War of Independence. American attacks on Spain's Pacific possessions led to involvement in the Philippine Revolution and ultimately to the Philippine–American War.[9] Puerto Rico The Philippines

14 Dollar Diplomacy President Taft’s plan
Encouraged United States citizens to invest in Latin America He promised that the United States would step in if unrest threatened their investments. A policy aimed at furthering the interests of the United States abroad by encouraging the investment of U.S. capital in foreign countries. hat the goal of diplomacy was to create stability and order abroad that would best promote American commercial interests. Knox felt that not only was the goal of diplomacy to improve financial opportunities, but also to use private capital to further U.S. interests overseas. "Dollar diplomacy" was evident in extensive U.S. interventions in the Caribbean and Central America, especially in measures undertaken to safeguard American financial interests in the region. In China, Knox secured the entry of an American banking conglomerate, headed by J.P. Morgan, into a European-financed consortium financing the construction of a railway from Huguang to Canton. In spite of successes, "dollar diplomacy" failed to counteract economic instability and the tide of revolution in places like Mexico, the Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, and China.

15 China in the 1800s Early 1800s: Opium Wars
Not recognized as a sovereign nation by European countries Sphere of influence: Area where a foreign nation has greater political power than a host nation The first was between Great Britain and China. Early in the 19th cent., British merchants began smuggling opium into China in order to balance their purchases of tea for export to Britain. In 1839, China enforced its prohibitions on the importation of opium by destroying at Guangzhou (Canton) a large quantity of opium confiscated from British merchants. Great Britain, which had been looking to end China's restrictions on foreign trade, responded by sending gunboats to attack several Chinese coastal cities.

16 The Open Door Policy Secretary of State John Hay proposed a policy that would give all nations equal trading rights in China. This policy would give imperial nations EQUAL FOOTING and prevent China from being carved up. Clip

17 China’s Humiliation NO NATION FORMALLY AGREED TO THE OPEN DOOR POLICY…BUT Hay announced the agreement to the Policy. U.S. investment interests were PROTECTED.

18 The Boxer Rebellion The “Boxers” (Chinese native martial artists) rebelled against Imperial Powers. China paid $300 million in reparations. The U.S. used part of its share to fund scholarships to Chinese students. Clip

19 Global Economy Growth in international trade occurred from the late 1800s to World War I—the first era of a true “global economy.”

20 Political Cartoon Imperialism Spheres of Influence Spanish-American War Annex Protectorates Open Door Policy Hawaii Create a political cartoon that expresses United States expansionism. An example of a political cartoon from this time period is depicted to the left. DO NOT COPY OR IMITATE THIS CARTOON-CREATE YOUR OWN UNIQUE WORK. Once you have completed your political cartoon, write one paragraph that explains the symbolism within your cartoon. The paragraph must include at least five words from the following list: Foreign policy Isolationism Expansionism Reparations Seward’s Folly

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