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NE Introduction to Nuclear Science Spring 2012 Classroom Session 6: Rates of Nuclear Decay Transient Equilibrium Secular Equilibrium No Equilibrium Branching Growth of Products in a Neutron Flux Transient Equilibrium Secular Equilibrium No Equilibrium Radiation Interaction with Matter

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Reminder Load TurningPoint Reset slides Load List Homework #1 due on Thursday How to measure half-lives document 2

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Products in a Decay Chain 3

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Solution: 4 If N B0 =0

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Transient Equilibrium If parent T 1/2 >3-10 times daughter T 1/2 5

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Example Radionuclide Generator Every time the “cow” is “milked” by running eluting solvent, activity of 99m Tc drops.

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Secular Equilibrium If parent T 1/2 >> 10 times daughter T 1/2 7 It is useful to calculate the half-life of long- lived isotopes. For example for 238 U 238 U 234 Th 234 Pa and 234 Th T 1/2 =24.1d

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No Equilibrium 8 If parent T 1/2 < daughter T 1/2 no equilibrium Parent decays Daughter increases then decays too

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General Decay Chain – Bateman Equations 9 Two assumptions: 1. only parent at t=0. 2. no i ’s are equal

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Branching Often observed in the odd-odd line of -stability 10

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Growth of Radioactive Products in a Neutron Flux 11

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Growth of Radioactive Products in a Neutron Flux 12 Notice saturation after 3-5 times T 1/2 radioactive product. Notice saturation after 3-5 times T 1/2 radioactive product. Additional irradiation time does not increase activity. Additional irradiation time does not increase activity.

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