Men make their own history, but they do not make it as they please; they do not make it under self-selected circumstances, but under circumstances existing already, given and transmitted from the past. The tradition of all dead generations weighs like a nightmare on the brains of the living. (Marx, Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte (1852))
Andre Gunder Frank Underdevelopment is not a condition resulting from ‘traditional societies” Instead: The Development of Underdevelopment Underdevelopment is functional for the system. The system is a very unequal one. Not a Stageist Theory Not state-based Historical
There are underdeveloped countries, and they have very, very poor prospects (perhaps no prospects) for development within the global capitalist system. These limits on development possibilities are largely the result of contact with the core countries. Core countries required the benefits they derived from colonial extraction of resources in order to develop themselves initially. Core countries continue to require the benefits they derive from the continuing development of underdevelopment in the 3rd world.
Moderate Dependency TheoryRadical Dependency Theory Import Substitution Industrialization (ISI) Revolution, Decoupling from the metropole.
“production for sale in a market in which the object is to realize the maximum profit" "In such a system production is constantly expanded as long as further production is profitable, and men constantly innovate new ways of producing things that will expand the profit margin“ (from Rise and Future Demise) “ceaseless accumulation of capital” Vs Traditional Marxist view: It ain’t capitalism if it is not characterized by the separation of the workers from the means of production.
World Economy Economy of the world World-Economy Economy that is a world A world-empire is encompassed by a single political entity. A world-economy is composed of multiple political entities.
“Establish the rules of the game in the interstate system” “dominate the world economy in” Production Commerce Finance “Get their way politically with a minimal use of force” While having force in “goodly strength” “Formulate the cultural language with which one discussed the world”
They [each of us] act freely, but their freedom is constrained by their biographies and the social prisons of which they are a part. Analyzing their prisons liberates them to the maximum degree that they can be liberated. To the extent that we each analyze our social prisons, we liberate ourselves from their constraints to the extent that we can be liberated."
Cyclical Rhythms tend to return to equilibrium. East Asia would probably produce next hegemon later in the 21 st century. But... The CWE won’t last that long. Why? Secular Trends Personnel Inputs Taxation Secular Trends rise over time, approaching systemic asymptote. As they do, cycles swing more wildly, system cannot restore equilibrium.
Deruralization of the world system; Global Proletarianization; Nowhere for capital to relocate Global end of a superexploitable work force
Bioresource limitations Externalization of costs handling toxic waste, renewing raw materials, and building infrastructure. Transport Communication
Antisystemic movements and political culture Democratic expectations of Education Health care Lifetime income (pensions, etc)
Bifurcation: Two alternative paths “members of the system are called upon to make a historical choice” Even capitalists are beginning to look for a new system: capitalism is increasingly not profitable system-wide.
The manufactures of England have in some instances superseded those of India. Of the trade which has been attended with such a result, England at least has no right to complain; and. though India may have suffered thereby some temporary inconvenience, she possesses in her internal resources the means of recovering and of converting the trade with England into a mine of wealth and prosperity. India can never again be a great manufacturing country, but by cultivating her connection with England she may be one of the greatest agricultural countries in the world. She may furnish the raw commodity, which the local advantages of England enable that nation more beneficially to work up. Here too, England will gain a double advantage by securing in India, at once a field for raising the raw material, and a market' for the cosuniption of manufactured goods. From A View of the present state of the question as to Steam Communication with India (2 nd ed) Robert Melville GRINDLAY, 1837