Presentation on theme: "Industrialization and Western Global Hegemony 1750-1914."— Presentation transcript:
Industrialization and Western Global Hegemony 1750-1914
Chronology Begins with no particular event Seven Year’s War, Industrial Revolution 1798, France takes Egypt with a small expeditionary force 1820’s, England tightens control over India 1830’s, China is forced to open their markets to the west [Opium War] 1850’s, England and France defeat Russia near its border [Cirmean War]
Chronology continued US forces Japan to open its markets in 1850’s [Admiral Perry] American Civil war 1861-1865 [Industrial North over non-industrial south] 1860-1900, Latin America, Africa, Polynesia colonized to a much larger degree Era Closes at the outbreak of WWI, why?
Industrial Revolution Led by Britain, then Western Europe and the United States Technological change in the form of coal powered engines (then fossil fuels) applied to production. Automation was steadily applied to processes that had once been labor intensive. Output increased at an exponential rate
Industrial Revolution Why Britain? Several favorable factors, –natural, –political, –economic, and –intellectual resources Plus they had a population crisis caused by a revolution in agriculture.
Industrial Revolution Followed previous European trends of a growing large manufacturing sector and huge advantages in world trade. Governments supported technological innovation with policies of economic growth, instituting laws to encourage banking, trading, entrepreneurship and inventions. Europe’s dominance in turn generated investment capital, profits from trade, and ultimately more market opportunities
Industrial Revolution Affect on Society and Culture Mass Migrations Rapid Urbanization New Social Divisions erupted onto the world stage Familial roles change in middle class, women take a step back in the merchant class from the previous era
Industrial Revolution Middle Class began to embrace education and not apprenticeship as a means to success
Industrial Revolution Effect upon the West –Increased Military Power with new weapons technology Standardization of parts Mass Production –New Forms of Transportation and Communication (Steamship, Railroad, Telegraph!!!) This is the means for the new dominance of Western Imperialism
Industrial Revolution Effect on the Global Markets was catastrophic Areas that had been dependant on western goods in exchange for raw materials now were even more dependant Areas that had previous manufacturing like China, India, and Latin America “de- industrialized” in the wake of their markets being flooded with cheap European goods
Lasting Effects Eventually the world would be divided into groups that were industrial and those that were not. Some Countries would seize upon the European model and attempt to industrialize themselves. Those that succeeded were not subsumed in the oncoming tide...
Population Movements Birth Rate declined as children became less important in the workplace (agriculture and factory) Urbanization Slave Trade ended New Immigrants take the place of the slaves (Asian and European)
Demographic and Environmental Changes End of Atlantic Slave Trade New Birthrate Patterns Disease prevention and eradication Food Supply
Reactions to Western Hegemony 1.Incorporation into an expanded Western Civilization with certain modifications on basic western patterns: US, Canada, Australia, New Zealand 2.Imitation of Western economic success without adopting western systems: Russia and Japan
Reactions to Western Hegemony 3.Losing territories, but maintaining a weak independent state: China and Ottoman 4.Colonized outright: Africa, India
Major Forces in this Era? 1.Economic. Industrialization 2.Political. Imperialism 3.Social. Racism 4.Cultural. Western
Global Society Technology: Steam Ships, locomotives, telegraph increased the speed and volume of transport and communication Suez (1869) and Panama canals (1914) International Corporations Cultural Globalization: –Soccer –Hollywood
Western Dominance of Global Society Economic, Political, Social, Cultural, & Artistic