Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Human Development A Cultural Approach Chapter Death and Afterlife Beliefs 13.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Human Development A Cultural Approach Chapter Death and Afterlife Beliefs 13."— Presentation transcript:

1 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Human Development A Cultural Approach Chapter Death and Afterlife Beliefs 13

2 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Physical Aspects of Death

3 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Figure 13.1 Causes of Death in Massachusetts from the 1840s–Present As infectious diseases were effectively prevented and treated, deaths due to heart disease and cancer increased. Source: Massachusetts Department of Public Health

4 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett The Demography of Death Major Cause of Death Today One major cause of death is cardiovascular disease Arteries that supply blood become narrow due to plaque build up  Symptom: -Angina Pectoris—severe pain in chest, neck and left arm -Can have a heart attack—weakness, dizziness, confusion, and shortness of breath

5 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett The Demography of Death Cardiovascular Disease Men have higher rates of heart disease than women African American rates high, Latino and Asian American lowest Highest rates in eastern European countries and low in southern Europe Risk factors include: Diet, cigarette smoking, and lack of exercise (obesity)

6 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett The Demography of Death Cancer Occurs in later adulthood because cell replication becomes less efficient as people age Symptoms vary but can include weight loss, fatigue, and weakness

7 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett The Demography of Death Cancer Cancer is more common among men than women Risk factors include: smoking, diet, excessive alcohol use, and chronic exposure to sunlight Strongly genetic and consequence of aging

8 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Beyond Death: The Sources of Aging Aging impacted by cellular clock Cell replication is limited—Hayflick limit Limitation caused by the telomere  Each replication shortens the telomere which impacts life expectancy Regulating telomeres is a way to extend Hayflick limit Preventing free radicals through antioxidants may also impact aging

9 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Beyond Death Can Aging Be Reversed? Growth hormone—can increase muscle mass and bone density DHEA-hormone involved in muscle growth  No clear benefit as yet Reduced caloric intake has had some positive results

10 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Sociocultural and Emotional Responses to Death

11 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett The Sociocultural Contexts of Death Where We Die In developing countries most die at home In developed countries only 20% die at home Many prefer to die in comfort but in developed countries that is a challenge due to causes of illness

12 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett The Sociocultural Contexts of Death Where We Die Hospitals can provide care but more impersonal Increased chance of loneliness, fear, and untreated pain

13 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett The Sociocultural Contexts of Death Options Regarding the End of Life Hospice care—Addresses needs of individuals with 6 months or less to live  Palliative care—relieve pain and suffering  Takes place at home  Provides medical, psychological, and spiritual counseling  Housekeeping support

14 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett The Sociocultural Contexts of Death Options Regarding the End of Life Euthanasia means “good death”  Passive euthanasia—ceasing medical interventions  Active euthanasia—ceasing treatment and taking steps to encourage death  Can be difficult to determine the distinction between the two  Passive is legal in most countries while active is not

15 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett The Sociocultural Contexts of Death Options Regarding the End of Life Advanced directive gives written instructions concerning end of life care  Can include a living will specifying treatments to be done or not done  Can include a Do Not Resuscitate provision and health care proxy  May not always be followed

16 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Bereavement and Grief Emotional Arc of Grief Bereavement is experiencing the loss of a loved one Grief is the intense psychological response that accompanies bereavement Grief responses change over time

17 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Bereavement and Grief Variations in Grieving Parents’ death can place children at risk for depression A child’s death can increase divorce risk A spouse’s death can increase risk of mortality of surviving spouse Sudden deaths evoke more intense grief than anticipated deaths

18 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Bereavement and Grief Confronting Death Elizabeth Kubler-Ross proposed five stages in response to death  Denial—refuse to believe diagnoses  Anger—it is not fair  Bargaining—towards God or other spiritual entity  Depression—death is near  Acceptance—peace

19 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Bereavement and Grief Confronting Death Limitations of theory include:  Not all go through five stages  Missing fear as a response  Lack of cultural context

20 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Beliefs About Death and the Afterlife

21 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Beliefs About Death Throughout the Life Span Beliefs in Childhood and Adolescence Young children understand death is permanent but not inevitable  Understanding may be limited due to adults euphemisms referring to death Adolescents understand death and beliefs are more abstract

22 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Beliefs About Death Throughout the Life Span Beliefs in Adulthood Death anxiety is highest in emerging adulthood  Due to plans and goals still to accomplish Death anxiety is lowest in late adulthood  Due to life review and expectation of death

23 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Beliefs About Death Throughout the Life Span Beliefs in Adulthood Anxiety is lowest in those with strongest religious faith Anxiety is highest in people who are unsure of religious belief

24 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Beliefs About Death Throughout the Life Span Beliefs in Adulthood Beliefs about death also change throughout adulthood Young adulthood focuses on fear for one’s child Middle adulthood may tend to reexamine life Late adulthood are familiar with death and may talk about it

25 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Afterlife Beliefs and Mourning Rituals Afterlife Beliefs in the Major Religions Death not the end in most religions Morality in life is reflected in the afterlife  Reincarnation status or Heaven/Hell Differences in ritual and funeral observances

26 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Afterlife Beliefs and Mourning Rituals Individual Beliefs About Life After Death

27 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Table 13.1 Americans’ Belief in an Afterlife Responses to the question: “Do you believe in life after death?” Source: U.S. Religious Landscape Survey, Pew Center’s Forum on Religion & Public Life, © 2008, Pew Research Center.

28 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Afterlife Beliefs and Mourning Rituals Mourning Rituals of the Major Religions Ritual is important for Hinduism which include  Bathing the body with holy water and draped with white cloth  Sprinkling rice on mouth  Cremation with only men present  Ashes are scattered and on 31 st day, a memorial service is held

29 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Afterlife Beliefs and Mourning Rituals Mourning Rituals of the Major Religions Buddhism rituals include:  Presence of monks is important  Bathing ceremony after death  Cremation  Feast held on day of cremation  Continual prayers performed by monks

30 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Afterlife Beliefs and Mourning Rituals Mourning Rituals of the Major Religions Judaism tends to have a community of volunteers  Body is washed and purified  Body is dried and wrapped in linen  Laid to rest with no coffin  Family members enter 7 day mourning period followed by a second 30 day period

31 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Afterlife Beliefs and Mourning Rituals Mourning Rituals of the Major Religions Two major mourning traditions in Christianity  Catholic—anointing of the sick, followed by a vigil, and a requiem mass is held  Protestant—may have a funeral service which includes a eulogy Protestant less ritualized than Catholic tradition

32 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Afterlife Beliefs and Mourning Rituals Mourning Rituals of the Major Religions Islamic rituals include:  Gathering near deathbed reciting the Koran  Body is bathed and burial takes place shortly after death  Cremation is forbidden  Body laid on right side facing Mecca  Three day mourning period with wives mourning for 4 months and 10 days

33 Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Afterlife Beliefs and Mourning Rituals Honoring the Dead Hindu—year anniversary of death the deceased favorite food is prepared Buddhist—ancestor worship Jewish—Yahrezit candle lit for 24 hours and prayer recited 3 times Christian—three-day period called All Hallows Eve Muslims—visit graves, show respect, and offer prayers


Download ppt "Human Development: A Cultural Approach Jeffrey Jensen Arnett Human Development A Cultural Approach Chapter Death and Afterlife Beliefs 13."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google