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The Challenge of Aging Chapter 17
©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 2 The Challenge of Aging –Normal process of development that occurs throughout life Generating vitality as you age –Biological aging: the normal, progressive, irreversible changes to one’s body that begin at birth and continue until death –Psychological and social aging: more abrupt changes in circumstances and emotion –Successful aging requires preparation What happens as you age? –Characteristics associated with aging are not due to aging at all Result of neglect and abuse of our bodies and minds
©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 3 Life-Enhancing Measures: Age-Proofing Challenge your mind –Older adults who stay mentally active have a lower risk of developing dementia Develop physical fitness –Enhances both psychological and physical health Eat wisely –Eat a varied diet full of nutrient-rich foods –Guidelines for older adults: Get enough vitamin B-12 and vitamin D Limit sodium intake and get enough potassium Consume foods rich in dietary fiber and drink plenty of water Pay special attention to food safety
©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 4 Life-Enhancing Measures: Age-Proofing Maintain a healthy weight Control drinking and overdependence on medications Don’t smoke Schedule screenings and physical examinations to detect treatable diseases Recognize and reduce stress
©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 5 Dealing With The Changes Of Aging Planning for social changes –Changing roles and relationships Major feature of life –Increased leisure time Many people do not know how to enjoy their free time –The economics of retirement Financial planning should begin early in life
©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 6 Adapting to Physical Changes Hearing loss Vision changes –Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) –Presbyopia –Cataracts Arthritis –Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common type of arthritis Menopause –Usually occurs during a woman’s 40s or 50s –Perimenopause Osteoporosis
©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 7 Handling Psychological and Mental Changes Dementia –Sever and significant brain deterioration in elderly individuals –Affects 7% of people under the age of 80 –Two most common types of dementia 1.Alzheimer’s disease –Changes in brain nerve cells 2.Multi-infarct dementia –Series of small strokes or changes in the brain’s blood supply that destroy brain tissue
©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 8 Handling Psychological and Mental Changes Grief –Dealing with grief and mourning –Aging is associated with loss Depression –Unresolved grief can lead to depression, a common problem in older adults
©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 9 Aging And Life Expectancy Life expectancy –Average length of time we can expect to live –In 2006, life expectancy for the total population was 78.1 years –Those who reach age 65 can expect to live even longer, 18 years or more longer –Women have longer life expectancy than men
©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 10 Aging and Life Expectancy America’s aging minority –People 65 and over are a large minority of American population Over 37.3 million people About 12% of the total population in 2006 Expected to double by 2030 –Social Security benefits 90% of total income for one-third of Americans over age 65
©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 11 Family and Community Resources for Older Adults 66% of noninstitutionalized older Americans live with a spouse or family member 30% live alone Only 4% live in institutional settings Of those over the age of 85, about 15% live in a nursing home
©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 12 Governmental aid and policies –Social security –Medicare Pays about 30% of the medical costs of older Americans –Medicaid Health care for older adults –Gerontologists –Geriatricians Family and Community Resources for Older Adults
©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 13 What is Death? Defining death –Defined as cessation of the flow of vital bodily fluids Heart stops beating and breathing ceases Life-support systems –Brain death Harvard medical school committee – brain death involves: 1.Lack of receptivity and response to external stimuli 2.Absence of spontaneous muscular movement and spontaneous breathing 3.Absence of observable reflexes 4.Absence of brain activity on EEG »Check a second time after 24 hours »Excludes cases of hypothermia Clinical death Cellular death
©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 14 Learning About Death A child’s understanding of death evolves greatly from about age 5 to age 9 –Most children come to understand that death is final, universal, and inevitable Mature understanding of death –Impact on relationships –Religious or philosophical answers
©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 15 Denying Versus Welcoming Death Individuals often maintain conflicting or ambivalent attitudes toward death Few people wholly avoid or wholly welcome death
©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 16 Planning For Death Making a will –A legal instrument expressing a person’s intentions and wishes for the disposition of his or her property after death Estate Testator Intestate Testamentary letter –Document includes information about your personal affairs (bank accounts, credit cards, location of documents, people to notify etc.)
©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 17 Considering Options for End-of-Life Care Home care Hospital-based palliative care –Focuses on controlling pain and relieving suffering by caring for the physical, psychological, spiritual, and existential needs of the patient Hospice programs –Palliative care
©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 18 Deciding to Prolong Life or Hasten Death Persistent vegetative state Withholding or withdrawing treatment (passive euthanasia) Assisted suicide and active euthanasia –Physician-assisted suicide (PAS) Physician provides lethal drugs or other interventions at the patient’s request; patient administers fatal dose –Active euthanasia Intentional act of killing someone who would otherwise suffer from an incurable and painful disease
©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 19 Completing an Advance Directive Any statement made by a competent person about choices for medical treatment should he or she become unable to make such decisions or communicate them later Two forms: 1.Living will 2.Health care proxy Surrogate (decision maker)
©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 20 Becoming an Organ Donor Each day about 77 people receive an organ transplant while another 19 people on the waiting list die because not enough organs are available –Nearly 110,000 Americans were waiting for organ transplants as of July 2010 Uniform Donor Card Driver’s license designation
©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 21 Planning a Funeral or Memorial Service Disposition of the body –Burial –Cremation –Embalming –Green burial Arranging a service
©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 22 Coping With Dying The tasks of coping –Elizabeth Kubler-Ross and the five stages of dying 1.Denial 2.Anger 3.Bargaining 4.Depression 5.Acceptance –Charles Corr and the four primary dimensions in coping with dying: 1.Physical 2.Psychological 3.Social 4.Spiritual Supporting a dying person
©2012 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 23 Coping With Loss Experiencing grief –Bereavement –Mourning Tasks of mourning 1.Accepting reality 2.Working through the pain 3.Adjusting to a changed environment 4.Emotionally relocating the deceased and moving on with life The course of grief –Complicated grief Supporting a grieving person Coming to terms with death
The Challenge of Aging Chapter 17 Coping With Loss
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