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Psychology.  After Freud’s theories are popularized  Debate between pro-Freud and anti-Freud psychologists  Various theories to fit your own insights.

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Presentation on theme: "Psychology.  After Freud’s theories are popularized  Debate between pro-Freud and anti-Freud psychologists  Various theories to fit your own insights."— Presentation transcript:

1 Psychology

2  After Freud’s theories are popularized  Debate between pro-Freud and anti-Freud psychologists  Various theories to fit your own insights about causes of human behavior  To explain human complexity

3  All behavior is reaction to stimuli from the world around you  Control the stimuli-control the behavior  John Watson: Psychologists frustrated with making assumptions about unknown mental functions  Focus only on verifiable observable behavior  Based on Ivan Pavlov’s classical conditioning research: Pavlov’s dogs

4  System of stimulus-response units: cause and effects between environment and behavior  Rewarded or pleasurable responses encourage repetition of behavior  Punishment deters behavior  Example: Baby responds to mother, expects care  Food, warmth, love  Responds with cooing and waving arms  Cry when mom goes away

5  Watson’s successor as leading American behaviorist  Dismisses Freud’s psychoanalytic approach  Believes development of personality is too important to leave to parents/learning experiences

6  Walden Two: Invents self-sufficient community run on behaviorist principles  Trained nurses raise children  Shape personalities to maintain stable productive society  Applied theory to all of society in Beyond Freedom and Dignity  Critics accuse him of trying to solve problems by sacrificing free will and individual responsibility

7  Infants born with 3 instinctive responses: love, rage, and fear  All others developed through learning  Classifies all behavior as respondent or operant:  Respondent: When stimulus causes reflexive automatic involuntary response

8  Operant: Behaviors that act on environment to gain reward  Most human behavior falls into this category  Can be conditioned through reinforcement  To display: Skinner trains pigeons  Teach behaviors in small steps and reward with food pellets  Bowling, play ping pong, piano, and drop bombs   ature=related ature=related

9  Broken down into small steps  Desirable behavior is rewarded  Undesirable behavior is ignored  Example: Teaching a child to swim  Applied to personality: Early life experiences can condition later life behavior  Underlying cause for neurotic behavior  CsOI CsOI

10  Neurotic behavior is poorly chosen response to stimuli  Causes general anxiety that makes it impossible to cope with symptoms  Behavioral Therapy: Teaches you to form the correct response  Common Technique: Systematic Desensitization process  Example: Get over fear of heights

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12  1940s: Wanted her to have the best possible environment to produce healthy, happy baby  Temperature control: less restrictive clothing  Keep out noise and light so she sleeps well  Clean: Bath her less often  She grew up normal and successful  He was criticized: Why didn’t it catch on?


14  New research shows humans are highly adaptable to change in environment  Psychoanalysts modify Freud’s ideas: Believe social influences play a major role in shaping personality  Think less about influence of heredity and childhood experiences

15  Agree:  Unconscious has important influence  Repression used to cope with anxiety  Defense mechanisms protect ego  Early childhood is when you form basic personality  Disagree:  Sex Drive vs. Social influence=more important  Childhood Sexuality vs. Learned relationship skills  Woman=inferior vs. Neither superior  Id/Ego/Superego vs. They don’t exist

16  Basic needs must be met; then child needs love, support and motivation  http://www.wisc- 01 http://www.wisc- 01

17  Broke with Freud in 1911 to form new school of “individual psychology”  Believes Freud focuses too much on sexuality’s influence on personality  Focuses on inborn social needs/urges instead  Society modifies these according to it’s own values/culture

18  Inner system that guides an individual to a fulfilling style of life  It is you: it makes you the unique person you are  Each person chooses a particular role because society seems to reward that choice  Examples: happy-go-lucky, romantic, intellectual, melancholy  Fosters your drive to be a superior person  Adler contributes this to free will/choice, unlike Freud contributing it to unconscious

19  Begins as child when you are helpless, adults have all the control and power  Most healthy people overcome this  Some don’t: lack social skills, have disabilities, a lack of support, or experience discrimination  Some use it as a motivation to try harder and succeed to prove themselves  Some compensate through actions that hurt others

20  People driven by ideals that may be pure fiction, but are ones they pursue with great determination  Causes stress when they attempt to strictly adhere to them  Example: “Honesty is the best policy”  “If I am good, everyone will love me”

21  Inborn characteristic: we want out community to be a better place  We want to believe there is good in everyone  Why some will risk their lives for a stranger  Give generously to charity for greater good  Many now are placing concern about personal safety over social interest in the modern world

22  German psychiatrist  Didn’t like focus on sexual drives and inferiority of women  New ideas cost her a job and some of her support  Worked very hard to be respected as a woman in her field  Well loved for her warmth and dedication to helping people

23  Believes that ability to cope with life is directly related to how well a child copes with threats to it’s security  Adult personality grows out of this success or failure in coping with this anxiety  Babies: unable to control their environment and feel helpless  Harsh/strict/negligent parents increases anxiety

24  Major contribution to personality theory  Needs grow out of strategies to combat anxiety  People often make unrealistic demands on themselves on others  “I SHOULD always be understanding, helpful, sympathetic, forgiving, etc.”  Do things because you should do them not because you necessarily feel it or want to

25  Needs that move an individual toward people:  Need for affection, approval, to please others  Need for partner to run their life, fear of being alone  Need for prestige: self-confidence rests totally on receiving recognition from others  Need for personal admiration: Expects to be admired on the basis of false/inflated self-image

26  Needs the move an individual away from people:  Need to restrict one’s life within narrow borders  Need for self-sufficiency and independence: relationships are painful, won’t accept love  Need for perfection: Mistakes are weakness, person tries to be infallible at all times

27  Needs that move an individual against people:  Need for power: control is so important that they will do anything to attain it  Need to exploit others: Take advantage of people to relive own feelings of insecurity/helplessness  Need for personal achievement: Constantly needs more success, even if at the expense of others

28  Austrian psychologist who studied with Anna Freud  Theory of Psychosocial Development:  Same age as Freud’s psychosexual development  In each stage: Achieve new way of seeing yourself in relation to society  Personality develops throughout your whole life  In each stage: Conflict develops between positive and negative ego qualities, you must resolve each crisis to move successfully through stages  If one is not resolved, it CAN be resolved later in life

29  Trust vs. Mistrust: Birth to one year  Babies learn to trust of fear the world depending on experiences with other people/parents  Need to feel world is orderly and predictable  Lack of trust causes anxiety/fear in later stages

30  Autonomy vs. Doubt: Early childhood age 2-3  Children must develop self confidence and independence  Learn to feed and dress themselves and become toilet trained  Kids not given the opportunity to explore new skills will be full of shame and self doubt

31  Initiative vs. Guilt: Play age, ages 4-5  Children are curious and should be encouraged to develop their intellectual resources and interests  Free to run, play, and question everything  Guilt results from overly strict parenting that hinder self-motivation

32  Industry vs. Inferiority: School age, 6-11  Most kids enter school eager to learn and show off skills  Curious and love trying new things  Explore interpersonal relationships  Teachers/parents who push too hard can cause feelings of inferiority and lack of initiative

33  Identity vs. Role Confusion: Adolescence, ages 12-18  Critical period where you find your own identity  Made more difficult by challenges of adolescent tasks: sex, career choices, relationships with peers and parents, etc.  Must resolve identity crisis in order to have clear goals for a happy productive adulthood

34  Intimacy vs. Isolation: young adulthood, ages 19-35  People are looking for a partner  Find your values while your identity will be challenged by friends and lovers  Must develop strength to stick to commitments even if there is sacrifice or deferred gratification

35  Generativity vs. Stagnation: Adulthood, ages 36-60  Mature adults begin to plan for future generations, through children or community contribution  Volunteer work, coaching, or helping your own kids succeed adds to quality of life  Stagnant adults are concerned only with themselves and try to deny aging process and concentrate on material pleasures

36  Ego Integrity vs. Despair: old age, 60+  Well-integrated elderly people can cherish their successes, learn from their failures, and accept death  Remain active and involved  Those who did not achieve ego integrity are full of anger, fear, despair and regret

37  Swiss Psychoanalyst, friend of Freud  Doesn‘t agree with Freud’s focus on sex drives  Instead, places emphasis on spiritual and moral aspects of life  So influential and original that he has his own school of psychology; Analytic Psychology  Calls the human personality the psyche

38  Two parts: Personal and Collective Unconscious  The Personal Unconscious: contains experiences that were once conscious but have been forgotten/repressed  Unconscious can influence conscious behavior  Complex: organized group of feelings/thoughts in the unconscious  Fixation on aspect that dominates your life that you may or may not be aware of  Examples: money complex, power complex, mother complex, etc.

39  The Collective Unconscious:  Universal instincts, drives, and memories shared by the human race  Cross boundaries of time, skin color, and geography  “Memories” of history are unseen forces influencing your thoughts/feelings/perceptions  2 million years of evolutionary experience left a mark on the human brain  Example: People still like to hunt/fish, universal behaviors across separated cultures, etc.

40  Universal thought patterns, themes, and symbols  Appear across time in literature, religion, music, art, etc.  Create images on which you base your perception of the world  Creates your sense of wholeness, completeness, and interconnectivity  Examples: Hero archetype, mother earth archetype, the wise old man, the devil/villain



43  Four become systems within personality:  1. Persona: The “mask” you wear to hide your true self in public (your image)  In response to social pressure, traditions, and need for acceptance  Healthy if it is a choice, but can’t allow it to dominate your life  Example: the good girl, the bad boy

44  Anima and Animus:  All people carry elements of the opposite sex within their personalities  Anima: Feminine image men carry  Animus: Male image women carry  Provide balance to the personality  Enable sexes to understand each other  Forms your perception/expectations of the opposite sex  Example: Ideal woman

45  Shadow: Represents the primitive side of personality  Socially unacceptable thoughts/desires are repressed by personal unconscious  Most people hide the shadow behind their persona  Deep secrets, guilty pleasures, skeletons in the closet, selfish needs, etc.

46  Self: Analytic psychology places great emphasis on concept of the self  Life goal, striving for unity and completeness  Few reach this because all other elements of personality must fully develop first  Example: Religious leaders or philosophers who join conscious and unconscious mind see emergence of completed self

47  Introversion: look inward, find pleasure in pursuing own thoughts, shy, happiest alone  Extroversion: invest psychic energy in the outside world, need company, excitement, activity, outgoing  Everyone has both aspects, one usually dominates

48  As the subject responds to a list of prepared words, repressed/concealed thoughts will slip past the mind’s censors into speech  Responses to key words admit guilt/connect them to a crime, etc.  Similar to polygraph test

49  Human beings are free agents, they determine their behavior by choice  Not controlled by unconscious forces  No one is bound to the past  Rollo May: Encourages people to take responsibility for their own lives  “I learned along the way to tune in on my being, my existence in the now, because that was all there was—that and my tubular body. It was a valuable experience to face death, for in the experience I learned to face life”

50  Created after WWII to aid people who felt life was empty of meaning  It is the belief in the nobility of the human spirit that gives meaning and purpose to life  Central concept of life is being: all you can know of the world is what you perceive  “You are part of the world, and the world is part of you”

51  Being is becoming: Humans have potential to grow and change things  Alternative is to give in to frustration and sense of futility  To realize your potential requires that you explore your own being/consciousness/identity  Happiness found in freedom and commitment

52  Humans must take responsibility of their own life, completely free will  Make choices, take action, take risks, learn from mistakes  Everyone can change for the better and has a responsibility to do so  Don’t make excuses for your problems/issues:  “My parents hit me when I was little, so it’s their fault that this is the way I am. I can’t change.”

53  Happiness is a by-product of committing yourself to the choices you have made  Make each choice in your life as if you are making it for all humanity  Anxiety and despair result when you refuse to take responsibility of your own life  Life is not fair, bad things will happen, but live your life to the fullest and make the beset of it

54  Anxiety/despair are inescapable parts of the human condition  Making choices means taking chances  Each choice brings new anxiety  If you give in to this anxiety it causes neurotic behavior  Examples: Withdrawal from society, seeking pleasure by any means, conforming to the views/desires of others so they don’t have to make their own choices, etc.

55  Existential vacuum: Feeling that everything is meaningless, feeling helpless to change anything successfully, give up instead  Viktor Frankl: Studied concentration camp inmates  Many were in an existential vacuum=died  Those who lived were those who had a task to complete in life: someone/something depended on them=gives them meaning and purpose

56  Viktor Frankl: “I have seen the meaning of my life in helping others to see in their lives a meaning”  Rollo May: Anxiety in small doses is constructive  Sharpens your sensitivity  Spark creativity/motivation  Living up to your responsibilities strengthens you

57  Psychologists still hope for an all-encompassing theory to explain personality  Family Systems Theory: Therapists should focus on the family not individuals  Family interactions can cause anxiety or happiness  Psychologists are exploring ethnic and cultural forces that shape personality  Gender theory is gaining ground in comparing roles each sex takes on which form their personalities

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