Presentation on theme: "Evan Szierer, Brandon Medeiros, Jeanine Neves. Introduction Mars is the fourth planet in our solar system, located between Earth and Jupiter Mars is about."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction Mars is the fourth planet in our solar system, located between Earth and Jupiter Mars is about half the size of Earth with a rotational period of 24 hours, 39 minutes, and 35 seconds (1.03 Earth days) It takes 686.98 days for Mars to orbit the sun; just a few days less than two earth years Mars has a mass of 0.64174 x 10 24
Intro continued… Diameter of mars is 6800 km across, 53% of Earth’s The density of mars is 3.940 g/cm 3, only 10% of Earth’s Mars is about 207 to 249 million Km from the sun Mars, with an axial tilt of 25.19%, experience 4 different seasons
Intro continued… Eccentricity of Mars is 9.35%, its orbit differs by about 50 million km’s on one side of the sun The surface gravity on Mars is only 38% the gravity on Earth; in perspective, if you weighed 100kg on earth, you’d weigh 38kg on Mars
History Mars has been documented in the night sky for about the last 4000 years Johannes Kepler theorized that the orbit of Mars was elliptical
History continued… Around 1550, Nicolaus Copernicus is the first to hypothesize that mars is in fact a planet You may recognize the name Copernicus as the astronomer who presented the idea of heliocentric orbit (1543) Tycho Brahe, a Danish astronomer made accurate calculations of the position of Mars as early as 1576
History continued… Mars was first mapped in 1877 by Italian astronomer Giovanni Schiaparelli In 1910, American astronomer, Percival Lowell made observations of Mars and wrote a book (bringing generations of sci-fi novels and films) He sketched the planet, which included a series of streaks or lines, called canali… this popularized the idea of life on mars
Since then, they have found surprising evidence of an odd race on Mars.
Formation of Mars Mars was formed about 4.6 billion years ago Dust particles, gas and ice within proplanetary disk collide Contents inside disk collide over millions of years (forming larger and larger objects until planet takes shape) Energy from these collisions heated up Mars, giving it a molten core and volcanic activity How Mars was Formed
Moons of Mars Mars has 2 moons, thought to be captured from an asteroid belt Both moons were discovered in 1877 by Asaph Hall It’s possible that Mars may have moons smaller than 50–100 metres in width Both moons orbit almost exactly on mars’ equatorial plane How Mars got its Moons - Theory
Moons of Mars Phobos Larger of two and closest to surface Radius: 11.3 km (our moon radius: 1737 km) Eccentricity: 0.0151 Orbits 6000 km above Martian surface in 7 hours, 39 minutes (orbital period of 0.318 earth days) Mass: 1.0659 x 10 16 kg Phobos orbits so close that one complete orbit has occoured before Mars has spun fully Rises in west and sets in east twice a day
Moons of Mars Deimos Smaller and outermost moon of mars Mass: 1.471 x 10 15 kg Radius: 6.2 km Eccentricity: 0.000 33 (almost a perfect circular orbit) Orbital period: 1.263 (earth days)
Due to solar isolation, there are ice caps of ice and dust on Mars’s poles. These ice caps have layers that reflect the past climate variations. These ice caps are kilometers thick and its layers can be seen in cliffs and valley slopes. People have tried to link the solar isolation with the layer formation for years but so far it does not seem like one may be able to find a relationship between the two. A researcher, Christine Hvidberg, has used a model to explain the link between solar isolation and the layer formation. The model shows that the dust-rich layers can be formed by two processes. One process states that when the rotational axis of Mars tilts down during the summer, this causes high evaporation of the ice, the other process the variations in the axial tilt causing variations in dust accumulation. Physical Structure (layers)
Physical Structure (layers) continued… The upper 500 meters of the ice caps are equivalent to approximately 1 million years old as dated by the model. The model also stated that 0.55mm of ice and dust accumulate each year on average. This data helps prove that Mars’ climate history is over 1 million years old.
Chemical Composition Due to the fact that Mars is a terrestrial planet it up of metallic iron and nickel which is surrounded by a silicate mantle which is less dense then the rest of the silicates with Mars. All of this is surrounded my Mars’ crust. The oxidation of iron on the planet’s surface or the creation of iron oxide commonly referred to as rust gives Mars’ its red colouring. Although Mars’ true colour is more of a golden brown, the red dust is mainly in the atmosphere making it seem like the planet is red from a distance. is very similar to Earth as it contains silicates which are minerals that contain oxygen and silicon, as well as metals and other elements typically made of rock. Also like Earth, Mars has a central core made
Chemical Composition continued… Based on found data, scientists have concluded that the most abundant chemical element in Mars’ crust, besides silicon and oxygen, is iron, magnesium, aluminum, calcium and potassium.
The elements titanium, chromium, manganese, sulfur, phosphorus, sodium and chlorine are also found on Mars, they are however less abundant. On Mars hydrogen can be found in ice and other hydrated minerals, carbon is in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and also as dry ice at the planet’s poles. Molecular nitrogen makes up 2.7 percent of the atmosphere and though it seems there is no organic compounds on Mars there are traces of methane in the atmosphere. Mars is also very different than the Earth due to its mantle being twice as rich in iron, its core being more rich sulphur and Mars’ mantle is richer in potassium and phosphorus. The Earth’s crust also contains a smaller percentage of volatile elements like sulphur and chlorine than Mars does. Chemical Composition continued…
Mars, unlike Earth, has no plate tectonics as well as wind and rain which all cause erosion, because of this there are no environmental forces to erode away the impact craters that are dotted around Mars’ surface. Also due to the lack of plate tectonics the planet’s volcanoes would be able to erupt for millions of years without stopping and that the same rapture could stay open and continue to force magma to the surface until there was no more pressure to do so. The largest mountain in the solar system, Olympus Mons, is located on Mars; it formed due to the massive amount of erupted magma hardening on the planet’s surface. There is also a volcano on Mars called Pavonis Mons which was discovered by accident. It is in a chain of volcanoes known as the Tharsis Montes. The cavern within the volcano is an estimated 20 meters deep. Surface Conditions
Even though Mars is thought to not to have any plate tectonics, some believe that due to the fact that the three main volcanoes are in a straight line, it could be a result of plate motion. This may prove that Mars may indeed have plate tectonics. Surface Conditions continued…
Questions 1.What is the name of the largest mountain in the Solar System? Olympus Mons 2.Mars’ core is made up of metallic iron and nickel. True or False? True 3. Mars looks red due to: a) the chemical pigments in the soil b) red dust in the atmosphere c) the surface temperature reacting with the planets composition (C)
Questions 4. Phobos is the smaller of the two Martian moons. True or False. False 5. Who hypothesized that mars was in fact a planet? a.) Tycho Brahe b.) Nicolaus Copernicus c.) Giovanni Schiaparelli (B)
Questions 6.) Silicates, like those found on Mars contain: a.) Iron and Oxygen b.) Carbon and Magnesium c.)Oxygen and Silicon d.) Silicon and Iron 7. What could the chain of volcanoes on Mars being in a straight line prove? 8. What is located at Mars’ poles and why?