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Unit 4 – Equipment. Day 1 Microphones Transducer – device that changes one form of energy to another Converts voice into audio signal Types Dynamic Condenser.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 4 – Equipment. Day 1 Microphones Transducer – device that changes one form of energy to another Converts voice into audio signal Types Dynamic Condenser."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 4 – Equipment

2 Day 1

3 Microphones Transducer – device that changes one form of energy to another Converts voice into audio signal Types Dynamic Condenser Ribbon Patterns Omni Directional Bi-Directional Cardioid

4 Dynamic “Moving Coil” Waves strike diaphragm, which is connected to coil Coil is suspended in magnetic field As diaphragm moves, coil moves and because it is in a magnetic field, an electrical current is produced matching the original waves Characteristics: Very rugged, can withstand abuse Used in field recordings (outside) Accurate voice reproduction, good frequency response Handle high volumes well Reasonable budget range Types: Electro-voice RE 20, Electrovoice RE-50,

5 Condenser “Capacitor” Internal front plate (diaphragm like), Fixed back plate, Electrical circuit Both plates are charged When waves hit front plate, the distance between the plates changes This causes a change in voltage between plates which produces electrical current matching original waves Characteristics: Popular in studio settings High Quality, produce signal of exceptional warmth and clarity Requires phantom power (battery, or external supply) Loud output Fragile Types: AT8010

6 Ribbon Metallic ribbon suspended in a magnetic structure (similar to dynamic) Characteristics: Popular in old days Smooth, warm quality Extremely fragile

7 Omni-Directional Picks up well in all directions Sounds like “you are there” Picks up more ambience Forgiving mic placement Less handling noise

8 Bi-Directional Picks up front to back Good for interviews where you want both speakers

9 Cardioid Picks up from one direction Focus on centered subject Rejects ambience Precise mic placement needed Susceptible to handling noise, wind, and plosives

10 Miscellaneous Info Polar Response Patterns are 2-D graphs that represent a microphone’s pickup pattern Windscreens are used to prevent wind noise and plosives

11 Microphone Technique Mic to mouth distance of 6 inches (thumb to pinky) Not directly into mic, but rather slightly off axis Align mic with nose and then point it down a bit “Give a level” – Don’t say “check, 1, 2, 3”, rather read a sample copy

12 Mic Fright Performance anxiety Butterflies, sweaty palms, dry mouth Leads to higher pitch, running out of breath, faster pitch, lower volume Caused by: dislike of voice fearing failure being inexperienced being unprepared Nothing more than extra energy that you should use in a positive way

13 Audio Console 4 Functions o Selecting o Mixing/Amplification o Routing o Monitoring

14 Audio Console Controls Buttons (Press) Pots/Knobs (Turn) Slides/Fades (Slide) VU Meters In The Red In The Mud Pegging the Meter LED v Needle Outputs Program Audition Aux Cue/Preview Monitors Speakers v Headphones Feedback

15 Day 2

16 Broadcast Areas On-Air Studio (Main Control Room / Auxillary Control Room) Live studio Production Studios (1-6) Produce and record material that eventually will be on air PSA, Promos Creative center of facility Performance/Announce Studio (1-9) -Voice Over, Interviews, etc.

17 Aesthetics Avoid Fluorescent lights (they hum, and are harsh) Place lights on dimmers Stools should be comfortable, no squeaks moveable, and adjustable Decorations

18 Ergonomics Design considerations that help reduce operator fatigue and discomfort U-Shaped or L-Shaped layout Puts all equipment within arm’s reach and allows DJ to execute working combo DJ is performer and engineer at small stations At large stations there may be an engineer assist Stand Up or Sit Down Furniture is the foundation Equipment sets on it, mounts on it, or is wired through it Computer Monitor should be 2 feet away and fall slightly below eyesight Keyboards can be placed under counter Housing racks may require cooling

19 Other Studio Devices Playback Devices o Computer - Digital o CD Player - Digital o Cassette Deck - Analog o Turntable – Analog o Telephone – Analog/Digital Digital Audio Storage o Adobe Audition o Instant Replay o Delay o Audio Recorders

20 Audio Chain Major Categories of equipment Sound Sources CD player, turntable Microphones Digital Audio Workstation, Voice Recorders, iPods/iPhones Computers Recording Devices / Delay Systems Computer Signal Processor Equalizers, Noise reduction, Reverb Exciters Monitoring Equipment Headphones, Speakers Transmission System Transmitter, Antenna

21 Day 3

22 Acoustics The way sound behaves within a closed space Reflection Sound bounces off a surface Absorption Sound goes within a surface Penetration Sound goes through a surface Diffusion Sound is broken up and dispersed by a surface

23 Heard Sound Direct Sound is the main sound that we hear Indirect sound reaches microphone fractions of seconds after direct sound “Reflected” sound could be Echo or Reverberation o Echo – Bounced off 1 surface Distinct Repetition o Reverb – Bounced of 2 or more surfaces Coninual Decay Reverb Ring/Time – time it takes sound to die out Reverb Route – path sound takes from source to reflection and back to mic Reinforced Sound – Causes objects within studio to vibrate

24 Heard Sound Dead Studio = Short Ring / Long Route Live Studio = Long Ring / Short Route Abosrption Coefficient = amount that will be absorbed o 1.00 = all sound will be absorbed o 0.00 = no sound will be absorbed

25 Studio Shape and Size Parallel walls produce more reflected sound than irregular Standing waves = combination of a sound wave going in one direction and its reflected wave going in the opposite directions Undesirable effect created Avoid cubic designs Splay walls at non 90 degree angles

26 Live Studio Microphones are wired so that when it is turned on, the studio light turns on Many times talent will use hand signals when inside of a “live” studio

27 Sound Properties When something vibrates, sound is generated Vibration causes air molecules near it to come together, slightly raising the air pressure, pushing the molecules into motion, which sets others in motion, and so on Sound develops waves (like a stone in water) which vibrate up and down Push = Compression Pull = Rarefaction Must happen in a medium Commonly Air Could be water, wood (but that is usually Must have a receiver to perceive it as sound If a tree falls in the woods and no one hears it, does it make a sound?

28 Day 4

29 Amplitude Height of Wave = Strength/Intensity = Volume = Loudness Greater compression and rarefactions of air molecules occur Crest higher, trough lower Subjective Measured in decibles (dB) Silence = 0dB, 10x as powerful = 10dB, 100x as powerful =20db Human Threshold of hearing is 0 - Human Threshold of pain is 120 Above 85 dB can cause hearing loss 3dB = Barely Noticeable, 5dB = Clearly Noticeable, 10dB = 2x as loud, 20dB = 4x as loud

30 Frequency # times / sec a sound wave vibrates = # of cycles = Pitch = Highness Faster vibration = higher pitch Wavelength – measurement between two crests or two troughs High pitch is short, low pitch is long Subjective Measured in hertz (Hz) 2,000 cycles per second = 2,000Hz 1,000Hz = 1 kHz 20,000 cycles per second – 20kHz 3/4 of an inch = 16Khz, 36 feet = 30Hz

31 Timbre/Tone Waveform Pure tone is represented by a sine wave Basic tone = fundamental Most sound is combination of many tones Harmonics = exact frequency multiples of the fundamental Overtones = not exact multiples of the fundamental In-Phase – Peaks and troughs line up (combine into one wave with 2x amplitude) Out of Phase – Peak lines up with trough – cancel each other out

32 Envelope Duration = change in volume over period of time Attack – Builds max volume Decay – Peak volume to sustained volume Sustain – Holds sustained volume Release – Sustained volume to silence

33 Frequency Response Range of pitches the speaker or microphone can handle Low (Bass) = 20 to 250 Hz = power and bottom Too little = Thin, Too much = boomy Mids – 250 to 4,500 Hz = substance and intelligibility Too little = lack of presence, too much = harsh Highs (Treble) – 4,500 to 20,000 Hz = sharpness and brilliance Too little = dull, too much = excess noise and hiss Octave – doubling or halving the original frequency 110 – 220 – 440 – 880 – 1760 – 3520 – 7040

34 Noise & Distortion Noise – unwanted sound element, not present in original sound Signal to Noise Ratio – audio measurement (decibles) showing amount signal exceeds noise Bigger is better Most analog are 60 to 1 Most digital is 98 to 1 Distortion – Change in audio signal due to inaccurate reproduction of sound Most often when signal is recorded at level that is too loud Sounds muddy, less clarity Analog is worse at this than digital

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