Presentation on theme: "Speech Events and Rules of Interaction in AAE Overview Some verbal strategies Expressions in nonverbal communication."— Presentation transcript:
Speech Events and Rules of Interaction in AAE Overview Some verbal strategies Expressions in nonverbal communication
Overview of Speech Events 1.Signifying -“the verbal art of insult in which a speaker humorously puts down, talks about, needles-that is, signifies on-the listener“ -“dropping lugs, joaning, capping and sounding“ e.g. “Now look here, we both be standing here soaking wet and you still trying to tell me it ain’t raining. ” 2.Playing the dozens -“The dozens is a mean game because what you try to do is totally destroy somebody else with words...“ -it consists of set responses in versified form, ususally rhymed couplets.
3.Rapping -casual talk *a man tries to impress a female via the use of “verbal expertise” * someone provides another with information -highly stylized 4.Marking -the speaker dramatically imitates the words and perhaps the actions of a person and makes some comment about him or her. 5. Loud-talking -the act of delivering a line, intended for some select listener(s), loud enough for an outsider to hear
6.Woofing -boasting is used to intimidate an opponent, thus avoiding violent confrontation. e.g. Muhammad Ali 7.Toasts - tributes, often poetic, take a heroic stance on the subject - narrated in first person -specifically to masculinity, but women also deliver toasts about their extraordinary power e.g. “ I can read your thoughts right now, everyone from A to Z” Chaka Kahn “I’m Every Woman” “I’m a Woman.” musical “Black and Blue” 1989
Verbal Strategies From dozens to snaps -history goes back to African communities and slavery -play the game with person they know or who are in their circle of acquaintances -exaggerated statements -today as popular as it was years ago -Snaps and Double Snaps by Percelay et al. -girls also play the dozens and signify
Some examples Your mother is so stupid, she thought a lawsuit was something you wear to court. Your mother’s ears are so dirty, I can pull out enough wax to make candles. I went to your house, stepped on a cigarette, and your mother screamed, “ Who turned off the heat?” Your mother is so old, she took her driving test on a dinosaur. snaps from the Percelay et al. Shirley: Get a job! (Looks at man on telephone in disgust) Male: A job? Won’t you learn how to cook! Shirley: Yo mama! 1970s comedy “What’s happening?”
Loud-talking - “a loud-talker breaches norms of discretion, his strategy is to use the factor of audience to achieve some desired effect on the addressee.” - involves a louder than normal( or necessary) pitch on the part of the addresser and often an expression of embarrassment by the addressee, it is easy to observe.
Speaker B kept asking A where they should have dinner that night, but A didn’t have any suggestions. After some time had elapsed, A and B had the following conversation: A:I figured it out. Let’s go to that place where I had that good veggie burger. B: Oh yeah, American Café! That’s a great idea. A, B and others get ready to go to dinner. A: (A walks over to B and delivers the line quietly with discretion and with hands on her hips.) I know I have great ideas, but it takes time for me to come up with them, so don’t rush me. B: (B looks at A and delivers the line so that the other four people in the room can hear him.) Now see, see what I have to go through! A retreats to the door, out of sight, and wait for the others. She running to the door. She shame now. Dən told me off, now she wanna go in the dark. Everyone laughs.
Expressions in nonverbal communication: eye movement and giving dap Eye Movement 1.Cut-eye: -intended to convey feelings of “ hostility, displeasure, disapproval, or a general rejection of the person at whom it is directed.” -4 stages --a look or short stare at the target --followed by a gaze over the target --then a sharp look or ‘cut’ of the eyes by closing the eyelids and opening them --turning the head away from the target in disgust or disapproval
2.Rolling eyes -a person who is believed to think that she is superior to others or who displays an attitude that may not be accepted by a particular group may be the target. -in response to a statement that doesn’t make any sense or that is inaccurate -for fun -…
Other forms of nonverbal communication Handshakes -most commonly used as forms of, or in conjunction with, greetings and salutations Giving dap - express agreement about some issue in the conversation * Pound - a process in which the person (often male) gently pounds the top of the receiver’s vertical fist * Chest-touching - often the response to a score or tight (very nice) play. -have crossed racial/ethnic boundaries, as it is used more and more by athletes in general