Presentation on theme: "ELEMENTS OF MUSIC There are several key elements of music. When combined and used correctly they express emotion and provide us with “singable”, enjoyable."— Presentation transcript:
1ELEMENTS OF MUSICThere are several key elements of music. When combined and used correctly they express emotion and provide us with “singable”, enjoyable pieces that can represent time, place and even become what we use to describe who we are and what we represent.
2RhythmDefinition: The patterns of long and short sounds and silences in music.To create a rhythm combine any variety of notes and rests together (see your note and rest value chart).Rhythms can and are performed throughout any piece of music by any instrument, however, we can mostly recognize a rhythm when it is performed on a percussion instrument.
3Beat Definition: A steady pulse contained in music. Music is organized with time signatures that indicate how many beats are found within one measure of music.
4The top number of the time signature indicates how many beats will appear in one measure/bar of music.over 8 means 6 beats per barover 4 means 4 beats per bar
5The bottom number of the time signature indicates what type of note receives one beat. The 8 in 6/8 time means an eighth note receives one beatThe 4 in 4/4 time means a quarter notes receives one beat
6The time signature appears at the beginning of the music after the clef (treble or bass). It does not appear in any other measure unless there is a time change throughout the piece.
7TempoDefinition: The pace or speed at which a piece of music is performed.Tempo markings are traditionally given in Italian and the words that refer to tempo can be categorized in the following ways:
8SLOW Grave – extremely slow and solemn Adagio – very slow Lento – slow Largo – slow and broadLarghetto – less slow than largo
9MEDIUM Andante – rather slow, at a moderate walking pace Andantino – a little faster than andanteModerato – at a moderate paceAllegretto – fairly quick, slightly slower than allegro
10FAST Con moto – with movement, or a certain quickness Allegro – lively, rather quickVivace – quick and livelyVeloce – with velocityRapido – rapidPresto – very quickPrestissimo – as quick as possible
11Other words that refer to Tempo Accelerando – gradually getting quickerMeno mosso – less movement, slowerRitardando – gradually getting slowerRallentando – gradually getting slowerTempo rubato – robbed time
12DYNAMICSDefinition: The volume of the sound, as well as the style in which the performer plays the instrument/music.It is important to not confuse how loud or soft something is on a recorded performance. It is easy to turn up (or down) the volume using an electronic device.
13DynamicsWhen dynamics are discussed in regards to orchestration we are referring to how loud or soft each instrument can perform on its own, the stylistic elements that support that sound and finally what dynamics they can create when combining and performing as an ensemble or orchestra.
14Italian Terminology Italian Terminology SYMBOL Translation pianissimo pp (ppp)As soft as possiblepianoPSoftmezzo pianompMedium softmezzo fortemfMedium loudfortefLoudfortissimoff (fff)As loud as possible
15Variations in Volume Crescendo Gradually louder Decrescendo Italian TerminologySYMBOLTranslationCrescendoGradually louderDecrescendoGradually softerSforzandosfz or sfStrongly accentedForte – pianofpLoud, then immediately soft
16Terminology referring to “style” of playing Italian TerminologyTranslationbrilliante or con brioWith brilliance or vivacitycantabileIn a singing styledolceSweetlylegatoSmoothlyscherzandoPlayfullystaccatoDetachedtenutoHeldvivaceLively
17TIMBREDefinition: The unique quality or qualities inherent in sounds that allow us to distinguish between them.Timber (TAMBOUR – as in “tambourine”) has also been referred to as the tone colouring of an instrument.
18The distinct tone quality of an instrument can be represented by the colour that matches the sound. Let us consider the Flute.What colour(s) would you think best represents the sound quality of this instrument?
19It is also important to consider how the instrument is being played. Quickly review in your notes some of the Italian terminology that is used to describe the styles of how one can perform on their instrument...
20At this point, depending on the style in which the instrument is being played, specific colours and/or descriptive words could be used to best interpret the sounds you hear!
21There are major differences between the families of instruments and how they sound. There are also differences that occur within each family. For example Flute vs. Bassoon (both Woodwind), however very different tone qualities.
22PITCHDefinition: The degree of highness or lowness of a sound.
23The StaffMusic is written on a STAFF of five lines and the four spaces between54321It is important to remember to count from the bottomup!
24Music NotationMusic notes are oval shaped symbols that are placed on the lines and in the spaces. They represent musical sounds, called PITCHES.
25If the notes appear higher on the staff they sound higher in pitch. If the notes appear lower on the staff they sound lower in pitch.
26Organizing Musical Sounds Musical notes are named after the first seven letters of the alphabet: A B C D E F G A B C D E F G A B C ... they keep repeating over and over and by their position on the staff they can represent the entire range of musical sound.
27Clefs in Music Notation Clef signs help to organize the staff so notes can easily be read.
28Treble ClefThe treble clef is used for notes in the higher pitch ranges. The treble clef (or G clef) has evolved from a stylized letter G into the present:
29The curl of the treble clef circles the line on which the note G is placed. This G is above middle C (The C nearest the middle of the keyboard).
30Note naming patterns – drawing and naming notes! Take out a pencil and on a new sheet of paper create the following – a blank staff:Use a ruler if you have one to ensure they are straight and even!
31Now draw the treble clef and create 5 notes, one on each line (leave some space between each note so that they do not stack on top of each other). Somewhat like this...Do not colour them in and only draw them on the five lines!
32Now let’s name the five line notes that appear in the treble clef...
33Every, Good, Boy, Deserves, Fudge Note naming patternsIn the treble staff the names of the line notes from bottom to top are:E G B D F This order can be memorized with the saying:Every, Good, Boy, Deserves, FudgeOr...
34Now recreate a new staff (including the treble clef) and fill in the four spaces using whole notes...
36The names of notes in the spaces spell the word: F A C E
37The Bass ClefThe Bass clef (pronounced “base”) is used for notes in the lower pitch ranges. The bass clef (or F clef) has evolved from the stylized letter f into:
38The two dots of the bass clef surround the fourth line, the line on which the note F is played.
39For a third time create a staff on your paper only this time practice drawing the bass clef – try to place the two dots directly in the 3rd and 4th space surrounding that fourth line.It is very important to indicate the dots in those exact spaces or you are not drawing the symbol correctly!
40Now draw on the 5 line notes leaving room in between (no “snowman” or stacking!)
42Good, Boys, Do, Fine, Always In the bass staff the names of the notes on the lines from bottom to top are:G B D F AThe phrase that can help you memorize this order is:Good, Boys, Do, Fine, AlwaysOr...
43Finally, one last time create a staff (including the bass clef) and draw on the four space notes
44Unfortunately the space note names do not combine to make a word. Do you know a phrase that can be used as a way to identify the notes of the bass clef?
45The space notes appear from bottom to top as: A C E GThe phrase that can help you memorize this order is:All, Cows, Eat, GrassOr...
46MELODYDefinition: A series of pitches that move forward (the sing-able part) within a piece of music.
48CONJUNCTA conjunct melody is a melody that moves in stepwise motion.
49DISJUNCTA Disjunct melody is one that moves with more leaps (jumps) than steps.
50HARMONY Definition: Combinations of pitches sounding simultaneously. Consider two performers presenting a piece to an audience. If one instrument is performing on whole notes while the other is playing the main melody there will be harmony.
51Instruments that have strings (violin, harp) or tuned percussion (piano, xylophone) can play harmony on their own.However, instruments like Flute, Clarinet, or Trumpet, need to have other performers playing with them for the harmony to occur.
52FORMDefinition: The structure of a piece of music, the way a piece of music is organized.
53There are many forms in music, but the main elements you need to consider when defining a piece of music is the repetition and contrast that occurs in the melody.
54Forms have been categorized based on letter names, for example A B form is known as BINARY Form ABA form is known as TERNARY Form where there is a repeat of an entire section – the A section of the melody.
55In Modern or 20th Century music sections or musical ideas have been categorized using the terms “Chorus” (or Refrain) and “Verse”.There may even be a “Bridge” which is sometimes a completely different idea within the melody that often occurs near the end of the song.
56Example:Verse1 Chorus Verse2 Chorus Bridge Chorus ChorusThe text of most Modern music can easily organize the sections of the melody as we can (almost always) understand the language and therefore identify where the repetition of the melody occurs.
57TEXTUREDefinition: The fabric or layering of sound created by melody, harmony and tone colouring (timbre).
58Consider all of the instrumentation that can be combined to create a single piece of music.
59Each instrument is responsible for a melodic and/or rhythmic line. When each instrument combines together with the ensemble (orchestra) the texture is specific to what and how they are performing.
60Different Textures Homophonic: A soloist performing a melody. Monophonic:A soloist performing a melody with accompaniment (for example Flute with Piano).Polyphonic:Many musicians performing/combining rhythmic and melodic patterns together.