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10/1/99Created By: C. Miterko1 29 CFR 1910.95 10/1/992 Objectives What is sound? How the ear works How to measure noise What does OSHA says about noise?

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Presentation on theme: "10/1/99Created By: C. Miterko1 29 CFR 1910.95 10/1/992 Objectives What is sound? How the ear works How to measure noise What does OSHA says about noise?"— Presentation transcript:

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2 10/1/99Created By: C. Miterko1 29 CFR

3 10/1/992 Objectives What is sound? How the ear works How to measure noise What does OSHA says about noise? Hearing Conservation Program Reading hearing tests Hearing Protection

4 10/1/993 What is Noise? Noise is generally defined as unwanted sound, we are all exposed to noise every day at home at work and in traffic. Hertz (Hz) –Frequency a high or low pitch Decibels (dB) –The loudness of the sound

5 10/1/994 Frequency Humans can typically hear between ,000 Hz You can hear different frequencies better than others

6 10/1/995 Decibels Sound pressure are measured in Decibels (dB) which is a logarithmic measure of sound pressure levels. Sound pressure are measured in Decibels (dB) which is a logarithmic measure of sound pressure levels. The quietest sound most humans can detect is 0 dB The quietest sound most humans can detect is 0 dB

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8 7 Common Sounds Common Sounds

9 10/1/998 Anatomy of the Ear Cochlea Ear Drum Ear Bones Semi-Circular Canals

10 10/1/999 How do we Hear? The outer ear collects the soundwaves The waves hit the eardrum, and cause it to vibrate The vibrations are sent through the ear bones to the cochlea

11 10/1/9910 Inside the Cochlea (snail shell) Delicate hair cells vibrate to different frequencies Hair cells detect the vibration, and send a signal to the brain Loud sounds destroy the hair cells, and they stop functioning FOREVER!

12 10/1/9911 The Ear does something else too! The Semi-circular canals –Three tubes laying perpendicular to one another –Filled with fluid and tiny hair cells –Depending on which way your head is tilted, the fluid moves the hair cells, and they send a signal to your brain Responsible for balance

13 10/1/9912 How to measure noise Decibels are measured on a logarithmic scale Every time you add 6 dB, you double the sound pressure of the noise

14 10/1/9913 Example In the field, we determined the loudness of two compressors right next to each other How loud is this area? –Do we add? –Do we add and take the average? 89 dB87 dB

15 10/1/9914 Neither, because it is a log scale We use the following chart 82 dB + 83 dB = 86 dB 87 dB + 89 dB = 91 dB

16 10/1/9915 How does the Safety Person determine noise levels Sound level meter –Determine the loudness (dB) of noise at any given moment Personal Dosimeters –Worn by employees –Measures the average loudness in an 8 hour work shift “8hr. TWA” (Time Weighted Average)

17 10/1/9916 What does OSHA say? At 85 dB (8hr. TWA) (Action level) –Train employees –Make hearing protection available –Sample for noise levels –Do hearing tests –Notify employees of results

18 10/1/9917 What does OSHA say? At 90 dB or more (100% Dose) –We must keep levels at or below 90 dB –Or require hearing protection that will lower noise levels to to 90 dB

19 10/1/9918 What are Our Noise Levels? Duration Per Day, HoursSound Level dBA ½ ¾ 107 ½ 110 ¼ 115

20 10/1/9919 Hearing Conservation Program Monitoring: Employers should monitor noise exposure levels to identify employees who are exposed to noise levels at or above 85 dBA averaged over 8 working hours, or an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA). Noise level meters & Noise Dosemeter are used after being calibrated.

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22 10/1/9921 When the daily noise exposure has two or more noise exposures at different levels, their combined values should be considered. (Use the following formula) F(e) = (T(1) divided by L(1) + (T(2) divided by L(2)) + ……… (T(n) divided by L(n)) F(e)= The equivalent noise exposure factor T= The period of noise exposure at any essentially constant level. L= The duration of the permissible noise exposure at the constant level. If the value of F(e) exceeds unity (the value 1), the exposure exceeds PEL.

23 10/1/9922 Example: 110 dbA 0.25 hours 100 dbA 0.5 hours 90dbA 1.5 Hours F(e) = (0.25/0.5) + (0.5/2)+(1.5/8) F(e)= F(e) = Since F(e) does not exceed unity (1), the exposure limit is within permissible limits Duration Per Day, Hours Sound Level dBA ½ ¾ 107 ½ 110 ¼ 115

24 10/1/9923 Audiometric Testing Should the noise level monitoring determine that employees are being subjected to levels equaling or exceeding a TWA of 85 dBA, the next step is to establish an audiometric testing program for those exposed at no cost to the employee.Should the noise level monitoring determine that employees are being subjected to levels equaling or exceeding a TWA of 85 dBA, the next step is to establish an audiometric testing program for those exposed at no cost to the employee. The important elements of an audiometric program include: Baseline audiograms, Annual audiograms, Control measures, Training, and follow-up procedures.The important elements of an audiometric program include: Baseline audiograms, Annual audiograms, Control measures, Training, and follow-up procedures.

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26 10/1/9925 Baseline Audiograms It is the reference audiogram against which future audiograms are compared.It is the reference audiogram against which future audiograms are compared. Must be provided within 6 months of an employee’s first exposure at or above 8-hour TWA of 85 dBA. (Control measures should be taken)Must be provided within 6 months of an employee’s first exposure at or above 8-hour TWA of 85 dBA. (Control measures should be taken) Baseline Audiogram must be preceded by 14 hours without exposure to workplace noise.Baseline Audiogram must be preceded by 14 hours without exposure to workplace noise.

27 10/1/9926 Annual Audiograms After baseline audiogram has been taken, each employee exposed to noise levels at the 85 dBA or above shall have annual examination.After baseline audiogram has been taken, each employee exposed to noise levels at the 85 dBA or above shall have annual examination. Annual audiogram must be conducted within 1 year of the baseline.Annual audiogram must be conducted within 1 year of the baseline. Compared with baseline audiograms results.Compared with baseline audiograms results.

28 10/1/9927 Continued To determine whether an employee has experienced any recordable hearing loss.To determine whether an employee has experienced any recordable hearing loss. The hearing loss is reffered to in the OSHA standard as :Standard Threshold Shift (STS).The hearing loss is reffered to in the OSHA standard as :Standard Threshold Shift (STS). OSHA defines STS as “a change in hearing threshold relative to the baseline audiogram of an average of 10 dB or more at 2000, 3000, and 4000, Hz in either ear.OSHA defines STS as “a change in hearing threshold relative to the baseline audiogram of an average of 10 dB or more at 2000, 3000, and 4000, Hz in either ear.

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30 10/1/9929 Audiogram

31 10/1/9930 Control The standard states that if the 90 dB PEL is being exceeded, “feasible administrative or engineering controls shall be utilized.The standard states that if the 90 dB PEL is being exceeded, “feasible administrative or engineering controls shall be utilized. If fails, PPE shall be provided and used to reduce sound levels.If fails, PPE shall be provided and used to reduce sound levels.

32 10/1/9931 Administrative Controls * Are defined as, “Methods of controlling employee exposures by job rotation, work assignment, or time periods away from the hazards.

33 10/1/9932 Engineering Control Are defined as “ Methods of controlling employee exposures by modifying the source or reducing the quantity of contaminants released into the workroom environment.Are defined as “ Methods of controlling employee exposures by modifying the source or reducing the quantity of contaminants released into the workroom environment. Example: installing noise – absorbing acoustical foam or baffles to capture and deaden reverberating noise.Example: installing noise – absorbing acoustical foam or baffles to capture and deaden reverberating noise.

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40 10/1/9939 Hearing Protectors Hearing protectors shall be made available and shall be worn by all employees exposed to an 8-hour TWA of 85 dBA or greaters.Hearing protectors shall be made available and shall be worn by all employees exposed to an 8-hour TWA of 85 dBA or greaters. Types of hearing protectors:Types of hearing protectors: Ear muffsEar muffs Ear plugsEar plugs Ear canalEar canal

41 10/1/9940 Hearing Protection NRR - Noise reduction rating –Express - 25 NRR –Classic - 29 NRR –Max Lite - 30 NRR DO NOT Subtract the NRR from the noise level –WRONG (109 dB - 25 NRR = 84 dB) You must use the “Safety Factor”

42 10/1/9941 Safety Factor OSHA says the hearing protection is designed to reduce the noise by the NRR, but that is unlikely to happen due to : –Leaks in the seal –Vibration –Improper insertion (NRR - 7) / 2

43 10/1/9942 Example of NRR Protection The noise at a large compressor is 109 dB You are wearing the Express plugs with an NRR of 25 Do you have enough protection to place you below 90 dB level?

44 10/1/9943 Hearing Protectors

45 10/1/9944 Ear Plugs

46 10/1/9945 Ear muffs

47 10/1/9946 Training - Recordkeeping Employees training is very important. All employees exposed to noise at a TWA of 85 dBA or greater shall participate in a hearing conservation training program.Employees training is very important. All employees exposed to noise at a TWA of 85 dBA or greater shall participate in a hearing conservation training program. An accurate records shall maintained of all employee exposure measurements.An accurate records shall maintained of all employee exposure measurements.

48 10/1/9947 A Final Note Hearing is important In time, noise levels at 85 dB can permanently damage your hearing Wear your hearing protection both at work and at home Choose hearing protection with a high NRR, and wear it properly

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