Presentation on theme: "Environmental Management of Loud and Silent Disasters Erika J. Clesceri, Ph.D. USAID Food For Peace MEO Workshop for Mainstreaming Environmental Management."— Presentation transcript:
Environmental Management of Loud and Silent Disasters Erika J. Clesceri, Ph.D. USAID Food For Peace MEO Workshop for Mainstreaming Environmental Management Kasane, Botswana 16-20 May 2005
3 Units 1.“A Comparison of IEE to Rapid Environmental Assessment” 2.“How fast is... Fast??” 3.“HIV/AIDS and Environment”
A Comparison of IEE to Rapid Environmental Assessment for Disasters Erika J. Clesceri USAID/DCHA/FFP Developed by Charles Kelly, Benfield Hazard Research Centre & CARE International MEO Environmental Workshop Kasane, Botswana May 17-20, 2005
---The Problem--- Existing environmental conditions often exacerbate disasters –Conflict, Deforestation Disasters can result in negative environmental impacts Relief aid can have positive or negative environmental impact Depends on intervention design...
Examine the direct and indirect effects of disasters and environment Understand potential costs of ignorance of environmental impacts of disaster response Discuss “good practices” in designing environmentally-sound disaster responses REA Objectives
Module 1 + Module 3 Module 4 Action Module 2 Summary of REA Procedure REA Procedure
Module 1 Organization Level Assessment + Module 3 Module 4 Action Module 2 Summary of REA Procedure REA Procedure
Module 1 Organization Level Assessment + Module 3 Module 4 Action Community Level Assessment Module 2 Summary of REA Procedure REA Procedure
Module 1 Organization Level Assessment + Module 3 Consolidation and Prioritization Module 4 Action Community Level Assessment Module 2 Summary of REA Procedure REA Procedure
Prioritize Issues and Actions Prioritize issues based on levels of threat to: 1.Life 2.Welfare 3.Environment L/ W/ E A Human- Centered & Ecologically-Sensitive Approach
Module 1 Organization Level Assessment + Module 3 Consolidation and Prioritization Module 4 Green Review of Relief Procurement Action Community Level Assessment Module 2 Summary of REA Procedure REA Procedure
Examples of Green Procurement in Emergencies Energy efficient equipment Computers, Cook stoves/Jiko Waste reduction Plastic Wrapping, Bulk Recycling Plastic, Metal Life Cycle Analysis
What raw materials must be extracted to make the new item? What are the pollution and social impacts of making it? What materials and energy are needed to operate it? What is the impact of its disposal?
Comparison of IEE to REA Approach IEE Designed For Development Projects Evaluation of potential ENV impacts Developed in response to legal mandate, negligent pesticide use (1970s) Required for all USAID Projects & FFP EMER > 1 Year Sustainability is Priority Intended to be Comprehensive Still Often Underutilized Designed For Immediate Emergency Response Evaluation of potential ENV impacts Developed in response to perceived need, NOT legal mandate NOT Required by USAID or Other Donors Priority: Lives > Welfare > ENV Timing >>> Perfection Approach Far Underutilized REA
Utility of REA to IEE?? Use REA to Provide Initial Info for the IEE, like “Screening Exercise” Help Prevent Problems in Relief that Development Will Have to Fix Use to Help Design More ENV & Risk- Aware Development Projects –Use to Develop Disaster Mitigation Plans for Development Activities
REA to Prioritize Issues for Immediate Disaster? To Avoid Unintended Consequences? IEE to Evaluate ENV Impacts of Development FFP IEE to Evaluate ENV Impacts of Emergency Lasting > 1 Year Landslide Transitioning from an Emergency…
Module 1 Organization Level Assessment + Module 3 Consolidation and Prioritization Module 4 Green Review of Relief Procurement A c t i o n ? Community Level Assessment Module 2 Summary of REA Procedure REA Procedure Ranked Issues
Everybody has their own standards... How fast is...Fast?? How rapid is...Rapid??
Sphere Handbook 2004 Edition Objective: oTo Improve the quality of assistance provided to survivors of a disaster oTo improve the accountability of the humanitarian community oTo develop standard operating procedures for disaster assistance
Sphere Handbook 2004 Edition oStandards for Wat/San, Food, Shelter, Health oDeveloped by field practitioners, research institutes, and cross-cutting experts in gender, HIV/AIDS, environment oAvailable in multiple languages
“the Minimum Standards in Water Supply and Sanitation” 1 Analysis 2 Water Supply 3 Excreta Disposal 4 Vector Control 5 Solid Waste Management 6 Drainage 7 Hygiene Promotion 8 Human Resource Capacity and Training
R = 500m Maximum distance from shelter to nearest water point is 500 m At least 1 water point for 250 people SOME QUANTITATIVE Sphere INDICATORS
Use Sphere Standards Use Sphere Standards Wat/San Nutrition Food Aid Shelter Site Planning Health
Environmental Management of Loud and Silent Disasters 1.“A Comparison of IEE to Rapid Environmental Assessment” 2.“How fast is... Fast??” 3.“HIV/AIDS and Environment”
HIV/AIDS & Economy “HIV/AIDS and the Economy is a 2-way relationship. HIV affects the economy through reduced capacity and diminishing economic returns affects the distribution of HIV.” Cohen, 1992, “Special Topics”
HIV/AIDS & Migration “Development projects often are not aware of the strong positive relationship between substantial population movements and the spread of HIV/AIDS.” Cohen, 1992, “Special Topics”
Destructive Cycle: AIDS & ENV ENV & AIDS Health & Funeral Costs Short-Term NRM Exploitation & Loss Tenure Rights Sexual Risk Taking Reduced Rural Assets Urban Migration or “Environmental Refugees”
HIV Impact Assessment (HIA) Pathmanathan et al. 2000, “Special Topics” Help program designers to consider potential impact that a development project has on the spread of HIV Aspires to mitigate impacts of a project on the HIV/AIDS pandemic in the same manner as the EIA minimizes negative environmental effects –Population movement issue...
Can CB-NRM Help Reduce AIDS? Use HIV/AIDS-Sensitive Planning... AIDS requires a community-based response Monitor Impact of AIDS on NRM Reform land tenure rights Reduce need for population migration Empower survivors & retain assets Link or create health care systems Incr. awareness of long-term benefits of NRM protection
HIGH PRIORITY ISSUES For New FFP Guidance “Leveraging of Resources if Food Security Objective is met “ HIV/AIDS Funding (PEPFAR) Access DCHA FFP Emergency Resources to carry our Disaster Mitigation Schemes that using the REA and HIV-IA EGAT CB-NRM Funds that are HIV-Sensitive EGAT AG or DCHA FFP Integrated Farm Management
Resource Acknowledgements Charles Kelly, Benfield Hazard Research Center, London Walter Knausenberger, USAID/REDSO