2Business Negotiations 2: Preparation This section introduces the concept of uncertainty – which creates the opening dilemma, the importance of preparation, and the need to be aware of the prevailing market conditions.
3Negotiating DilemmasIn negotiating, we don’t know what the other side will accept, and in some cases, we don’t even know our interests properly. This creates the following dilemmas:When and how to open.How far to move and when.How long to hang on.
4Doing your Research Preparation involves information gathering. Know the market value of the deal.Your information should be as good, if not better than the other side.Don’t assume that the other side has this information.
5Question 4You are about to meet with a client who places monthly orders with your organisation. You have just become aware that one of your leading competitors has launched a 25% across the board discount as a special promotion to attract new business. Would this information fundamentally change your approach at the meeting?YesNo
6SolutionOption B is correct. It is not in your interest to furnish the buyer with information about the competitors discounts. You should not assume that the buyer has the same information as you – they may not be aware of this promotion.Even if they are, they may have their own reasons for not changing supplier. However, if the buyer raises your competitors promotion as an issue, your should have prepared a contingency position.
7Preparing for the Negotiation 2.2 Knowing the MarketplaceThis section deals with gaining commercial intelligence about your leading competitors, and researching both the organisation and the individual that you’ll be negotiating with.
8Preparing for the Negotiation Commercial Intelligence should be gathered from as many sources as possible.Research can turn up information that can fundamentally change a negotiating position.Organizational and personal factors.
9Question 5You are preparing to negotiate the sale and support contract for some high value capital equipment. Which of the following is the single most important factor to determine at the outset?The other side’s negotiating style.The other side’s credit rating.
10SolutionOption B is correct. Before committing you should establish that the other side is in a position to pay and that their credit history is satisfactory.
11Preparing for the Negotiation Preparation is the most important stage of negotiation.Too often, people go badly prepared and end up giving more concessions.Ask questions like:What are my objectives?What does the other side want?What information is important?More time spent on planning and preparation is more beneficial in getting the outcome.
12Preparing for the Negotiation Assessing your ObjectivesWhat exactly do I wish to achieve from this negotiation?Which of my following objectives:Must I achieve?Do I intend to achieve?Would I like to achieve?What options or alterations would be acceptable to me?What are the other sides’ objectives?How does the other side see the negotiation?
13Preparing for the Negotiation InformationInformation is power.In early phases, both sides spend time finding out more information.What information do I have that the other side also has?What information do I have that the other side does not have?What information do I need to have before I negotiate?What information do they need to have before they negotiate?
14Preparing the Negotiation ConcessionsIn most negotiations have to be worked out where concessions are given.This is the area where the profitability of the outcome is decided.Concessions have two elements: cost and valueConcede on issues which have little cost to you, but more value to the other.
15Preparing Concessions Determine a range of acceptable agreement terms – from least to most desirable – for each of your objectivesList and then rank the concessions you're willing to make, based on the ranges you identifiedHigh pointLow pointWalk away pointRank the concessions based on the objectives
16Preparing the Negotiation Like, Intend and Must PositionsThe Best deal, likeThe Acceptable deal, intendThe Worst deal, must
17The Power DimensionThe more sources from which you can obtain what you want, the stronger your position; and fewer such options you have, the weaker your position.Most sellers are overly concerned with the power of the buyers and the extent of competition.Get the power dimension to work for you.It is important that you feel confident while negotiating. This confidence comes from power.Power is not absolute. The power balance moves with time as negotiation progresses.
18The Power DimensionThe critical question is not who is the buyer? And who is the seller? – But who can get the power dimension to work for them.
19Key PointsAltering the other side’s view of the power relationship can strengthen your position.It is not an article of faith that the buyer holds the stronger negotiating position.
20Question 6When you turn up for a sales appointment you recognize one of your leading competitors in the reception area. Would this lead you to lower your expectations of the deal that you can secure?YesNo
21SolutionOption B is correct. Your preparation should make you confident about the market value of your goods and services.Would you really expect to be the only supplier in the frame? The bottom line is that there is a deal to be done – be confident and make sure that it is you that wins the contract.
22Planning Your Objectives This section introduces Negotiating Range which is similar to like, must, and intend.
23Negotiating RangeThis is similar to the exercise we did earlier to Like, Acceptable, and Intended.IdealMinimumTargetDon’t forget the other side also has the same criteria.
24Negotiating RangeOnly when your target zones overlap, a settlement can take place.TargetMinimumMaximumTargetMaximumMinimumSETTLEMENTRANGE
25Business Negotiations 3: Opening This section describes briefly the nuances of opening.
26OpeningOpening is the most important opportunity to influence the other side.It’s always in your best interest to adopt a tough opening position.Careful preparation is a must for this.Opening DilemmaIf you open first, you will reveal key information.There is an old saying in Negotiation.“The guy to quote the dollar first usually loses.”
27Opening Ask questions. Listen and talk less. Think of different ways that you could put to use to get them to reveal their opening position.Analyze the opening statement.Identify what is non negotiable.Use positive body language (communication, posture, facial expressions, tone of voice).Make them speak longer, not you.
28Opening Intelligent listening Example: Usually, we don’t accept price cuts, under our standard terms, this is not our usual practice.Non Negotiable items can be a powerful bargaining lever.The Power of Silence.If you open first, reveal less, no more.See if their opening is credible.Shock Opening.
29Business Negotiations 4: Bargaining 4.1 The Bargaining PhaseThis sections looks into the details of the Bargaining phase.
30Bargaining Guidelines Don’t talk too much yourself.Don’t just say “No”.Don’t overstate your case.Don’t highlight your own shortcomings.Don’t deny obvious weaknesses in your position.
31Negotiating Behavior3 types of behaviour that we can display and encounter when in a negotiating situationRED BLUE PURPLE
32RED Behaviour Manipulation Aggressive Intimidation Exploitation Always seeking the best for youNo concern for person you are negotiating withTakingPeople behave in this manner when they fear exploitation by the other party, but by behaving this way to protect themselves, they provoke the behaviour they are trying to avoid.
33BLUE Behaviour Win win approach Cooperation Trusting Pacifying RelationalGivingDo you cooperate (blue) or defect (red)?
34PURPLE Behaviour Give me some of what I want (red) I’ll give you some of what you want (blue)Deal with people as they are not how you think they areGood intentionsTwo way exchangeTit for tat strategiesTo the red behaviourist the message is loud and clear, ‘You will get nothing from me unless and until I get something from you’.
35Negotiation Tactics No Deal Tactic Force you to accept the worst deal Can do better by walking awayAnchoring TacticCustomer makes an extreme offerCompromise is higher than seller expectsHard bargainingConcealing InformationCustomers keep changing their stance
36Negotiation Tactics Contd… Making Last Minute DemandsVulnerable to acceptThe KrunchYou’ve got to do better than thatMostly used by buyersBoulwarismNamed after Lemuel BoulwareUltimate offer with no revisionsRefers to “Take-it or Leave-it”
37Types of Negotiation Distributive Integrative Positional Involve win–lose, fixed-amount situations wherein one party’s gain is another party’s lossIntegrativeInvolve joint problem solving to achieve results benefiting both partiesPositionalThe more you clarify your position and defend it against attack, the more committed you become to it
38Integrative Negotiation Both sides work to increase the value of the solutionGoals are to:Create as much value for yourself and the other sideClaim value for yourselfOpen about information and circumstances