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Dr. Brad Harrington, ©2011 Customizing Organizations to the Changing Workforce Prof. Brad Harrington Boston College Center for Work & Family Mayflower Group, October 17, 2012 Newport, RI
Dr. Brad Harrington, ©2011 Outline of the Session Quick Intro to CWF Changing Workforce Trends The Case for Flexibility New Innovations and Approaches IBM: Culture of Flexibility Deloitte: Customizing Careers Role of leaders, employees & HR
Dr. Brad Harrington, ©2011 CWF Mission Boston College Center for Work & Family is committed to enhancing the success of organizations and the quality of life of today's workforce by providing leadership for the integration of work and life, an essential for individual, organizational & community success Key differentiators: - Bridge research & practice - Cultural change perspective
Dr. Brad Harrington, ©2011 CWF Members include …
Dr. Brad Harrington, ©2011 CWF: Recent Research
Dr. Brad Harrington, ©2011 Some Critical Workforce Trends Changing gender roles & family structures Pervasive technology & changing organizations Changes in values and work norms of Gen Y Globalization, working x-cultures and time zones, and 24x7 workplace Desire for organizations to drive down cost and increase agility Knowledge-based economy; work can be done anywhere & anytime
Dr. Brad Harrington, ©2011 Changes for women and families… Women now near 50% of US workforce Women earn 60% of AA, BA & master’s degrees 75% of married couples with children under 15 are dual-career couples, Women in dual-earner couples contributed more than 40% of family income; 25% of women earn more than their spouse Of 15 jobs with greatest projected growth rate in next decade, 12 are dominated by women
Dr. Brad Harrington, ©2011 Men feel more w-f conflict than women (National Study of the Changing Workforce by Galinsky, Aumann, and Bond, 2008)
Dr. Brad Harrington, ©2011 The New Dad: Caring, Committed & Conflicted (2011) Quantitative study: 963 respondents from four Fortune 500 companies National sample of “white collar” fathers 97% were managers/ salaried workers 87% held at least an Associates degree, 77% at least bachelor’s, 35% master’s degree or more 76% earned more than $75,000, 44% over $100,000 Average age: 42.6, range from 25-65. 81% White, 7% Black, 5% Hispanic, 4% Asian
Dr. Brad Harrington, ©2011 Comparison of Education Levels
Dr. Brad Harrington, ©2011 Time off after most recent child By contrast, most professional mothers take 2-6 months leave
Dr. Brad Harrington, ©2011 Comparison of Workweeks
Dr. Brad Harrington, ©2011 Career Aspirations
Dr. Brad Harrington, ©2011 What about fathers intentions? From outset, bias is woman is primary caregiver That said, how do fathers feel about their role to caregiving and their commitment to it? Average hours spent with kids on workday: 2.65 77% said like to spend more time with children, 22% satisfied, 1% said less (the last honest men?) 86% agreed that “My children are the number one priority in my life And few saw “Breadwinner” as the most important role
Dr. Brad Harrington, ©2011 How Father’s see their role
Dr. Brad Harrington, ©2011 What Makes a Good Father?
Dr. Brad Harrington, ©2011 How should / is care giving divided?
Dr. Brad Harrington, ©2011 Becoming a father, a winner at work … Research shows mothers receive mixed messages about career-family and are perceived as less committed, promotable, & competent New fathers receive universally positive workplace feedback after becoming a parent Organizations are not confronted with real change when men become fathers: 96% said managers expect the same 99% worked full-time after the birth 4% took 2 weeks off, 1% took 4 weeks
Dr. Brad Harrington, ©2011 Conflict and Enrichment
Dr. Brad Harrington, ©2011 Importance of a supportive workplace
Dr. Brad Harrington, ©2011 Work-Life definition Actions taken by employers and employees to help individuals effectively handle the growing pressures and responsibilities of work and personal lives so that employees can live up to their full potential while enhancing their contributions in the workplace.
Dr. Brad Harrington, ©2011 Work-Life’s Set of Expanding Challenges Women’s issueMen’s issue Child careElder care ConflictMeaning and Enrichment DiversityInclusion Health MaintenanceWell-being NationalGlobal FlexibilityThe Virtual Workplace Work-lifeWorkload HR ProgramsWorkplace Culture
Dr. Brad Harrington, ©2011 Flexibility as a Business Strategy: Impact of flextime and flex-place
Dr. Brad Harrington, ©2011 Business Case for Flexibility Global Organizations: Meet 24/7 worldwide demands Technology: Anytime, anywhere workplace attractive to Gen Y and most others Productivity: Reduces absenteeism, improve morale Branding and Attraction: Enhances reputation as “employer of choice”, especially for Gen Y Corporate Social Responsibility: Green approach Workload: Greater control over time reduces employee stress (will discuss later) Cost: Retain employees, reduce real estate costs, diminish no value commuting time
Dr. Brad Harrington, ©2011 Types of Flexibility Flexibility of Time (when) Flexible hours and compressed work weeks Flexibility of Place (where) Telecommuting, work from home Working from remote sites, virtual workplaces Flexibility of Work Load (how much) Part-time, phased retirement Flexibility of Careers More customized approaches to careers
Dr. Brad Harrington, ©2011 Most Common Forms of Flexibility Flextime (all employees at HP since 1970’s) Compressed work weeks (Raytheon) Reduced hours and job sharing Part-year, seasonal (education, retailing sectors) Flex-place / Telecommuting (40% of IBM’s 330,000 employees, Dell) Leaves & time-off (Deloitte, Lilly) Phased-Retirement (MITRE)
Dr. Brad Harrington, ©2011 Workload / Overwork One of the main issues flexibility is intended to address is workload / overwork which has become an even more pronounced issue since the economic downturn and lay-offs. “The hot button” resilience issue is managing workload – less than 10% of organizations say that they are doing well at managing workload and close to 50% surveyed rate their organizations low.” Report by WFD Consulting
Dr. Brad Harrington, ©2011 Then: Monday-Friday workweek Fixed continuous schedules 8:30 – 5:00 work day Work in IBM workplaces. Acculturation by peer to peer and management engagement. Work performed by stable, intact and local teams Global interactions at Sr. Levels Availability of technology “on demand” is constrained Now: Global interactions require work on weekends and off-hours Business requirements dictate variable work schedules Explosive expansion of work at home, mobile and client locations Loss of knowledge sharing Global teams collaborating remotely across time zones Global interactions at all levels Pervasive availability of low cost technology drives 24/7/365 culture IBM: The New Normal
Dr. Brad Harrington, ©2011 IBM Flexibility Research Flexibility is “the ability of workers to make choices influencing, where, when, and how long to engage in work related tasks” Flex has saved over $1 billion in real estate costs Based on 2007 WW W-L survey (N = 24,436) 13% of employees with high scheduling flexibility reported w-l conflict vs. 35% of those with low scheduling flexibility Employees who worked from home and had scheduling flexibility hit high levels of conflict at 57 hours vs. 38 hours (those with low flex)
Dr. Brad Harrington, ©2011 Flexible “Protean” Careers Mass Career Customization
Dr. Brad Harrington, ©2011 What’s going on with careers? Employment “contract” no longer valid Work & non-work lives need to be synergistic, not conflicting Careers are lasting longer but … Are less organizational Changes are more frequent Are more self-directed with many ways to define success Career paths are much more idiosyncratic and customized
Dr. Brad Harrington, ©2011 Changing career contract is visible in books We Are All Self Employed Free Agent Nation You & Co. The Boundaryless Career The Opt-Out Revolt The Quarter-life Crisis The Kaleidoscope Career On Ramps and Off-Ramps Mass Career Customization The CEO of You, Inc.
Dr. Brad Harrington, ©2011 Challenges Engaging Top Talent Attributes that define rising stars: Ability: Intellectual, technical, & emotional skills to handle increasingly complex challenges Engagement: Level of connection & commitment employee feels toward the firm and its mission Aspiration: Degree to which employee’s desires align with what the company wants for him or her Since 2007 employee engagement has plunged from 8% to 21% highly disengaged, higher for “star players.” Too much emphasis placed on employees’ ability. Martin and Schmidt, How to Keep Your Top Talent Harvard Business Review, May 2010
Dr. Brad Harrington, ©2011 Career Management & Work-Life Integration Protean career concepts Career best managed & success best assessed by individual Sees career in work / life context Requires commitment to learning & self-exploration Two critical meta-competencies: Identity: clear self-concept Adaptability: ability to adapt to changing professional and personal circumstances
Dr. Brad Harrington, ©2011 Traditional vs. Protean Career IssueTraditional CareerProtean Career Who’s in charge? Organization Person Core values Advancement Freedom and growth Work-life integration Degree of mobility Lower High Key attitudes Commitment to organization Commitment to profession Work satisfaction Work to live, not live to work Success criteria Position level and title Salary Psychological success Meaningful work
Dr. Brad Harrington, ©2011 Deloitte’s “Career Lattice” and MCC Copyright 2007, Deloitte Development LLC. ©
Dr. Brad Harrington, ©2011 Deloitte’s Mass Career Customization
Dr. Brad Harrington, ©2011 Flex organizations not business as usual Moving to a flexible culture is challenging Requires organization moves away from status quo and everyone works in same fashion Relies on managers who think openly about how and when work gets done Built on a foundation of mutual trust Requires thoughtful planning regarding goal setting, responding to customer needs, performance management, and equity issues – in short, good change management principles
Dr. Brad Harrington, ©2011 Integrated workforce leadership model
Dr. Brad Harrington, ©2011 Major change requires a change model 1. Establish the Case for Change 2. Form a Powerful Guiding Coalition 3. Create a Vision for Change 4. Identify Obstacles to Change (Resistance) 5. Plan for Change 6. Implement the change 7. Institutionalize New Approaches
Dr. Brad Harrington, ©2011 Summary Changes in society, technology, families, organizations & have changed how we work and how we live These dynamics have caused organizations to strive to be more agile and flexible They have also increased the need to address the work-life interface for all employees Employees are looking for greater flexibility; to work where and when they are most productive Flexible work and flexible careers require new HR models for talent management - a cultural change
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