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Old quantum theory New quantum theory

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Fizyka klasyczna - Mechanika klasyczna – prawa Newtona - Elektrodynamika – prawa Maxwella - Fizyka statystyczna -Hydrtodynamika -Astronomia

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Well begin our story with the age-old subject of optics, which holds the key to it all. James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) In the mid-19 th century, Maxwell unified electricity and magnetism with his now famous equations and showed that light is an electromagnetic wave. where is the electric field, is the magnetic field, and c is the velocity of light.

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Light is an electromagnetic wave. The electric ( E ) and magnetic ( B ) fields are in phase. The electric field, the magnetic field, and the propagation direction are all perpendicular.

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FALE JAKO CZĄSTKI

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In 1905, Einstein had a very good year. Albert Einstein (1879-1955) In 1905, Einstein explained Brownian motion and the photoelectric effect (for which he later won the Nobel prize). Einstein also explained Michelsons and Morleys experiment: he realized that light didnt need a medium and was a property of free space. And it traveled at the same velocity no matter what speed you were going. This is Special Relativity. Oh, and he graduated from grad school that year, too.

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Photoelectric effect E = h - W - eV http://lectureonline.cl.msu.edu/~mmp/kap28/PhotoEffect/photo.htm To learn more go to: 1888 Hertz 1905 Einstein

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Cząstki jako fale fale de Brogliea The figure shows a diffraction pattern of electron beams. Electron beams are diffracted by a crystal of manganese-nickel alloy. In this case, the de Broglie wavelength is < 0.01 Å which corresponds to a very high speed electron beam. p = mv = h/ = k

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