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CHAPTER 17: THE TIDE OF WAR TURNS Section 3: The North Wins

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 17: THE TIDE OF WAR TURNS Section 3: The North Wins"— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 17: THE TIDE OF WAR TURNS Section 3: The North Wins
Today we will trace the war from Antietam to Appomattox.

2 The Road to Gettysburg Battle of Antietam (September 1862) – McClellan stopped Lee’s Northern invasion, but failed to finish off Lee’s army, which retreated safely to Virginia.

3 The Road to Gettysburg Lincoln replaced McClellan with Ambrose Burnside. But Burnside also proved to be a disappointment.

4 The Battle of Fredericksburg, Virginia (December, 1862)
Burnside’s men would have to build pontoon bridges to cross the Rappahannock River before they could attack Confederate troops in the town.

5 Burnside had to send landing parties over in boats during the night to drive off sharpshooters that were firing at the bridge builders.

6 The Battle of Fredericksburg
Burnside ordered sixteen separate charges by his men to attack the Confederate troops positioned on the high ground above the river.

7 The Confederates fought from trenches and a stone wall at the top of a hill overlooking the river, and poured fire down on the advancing Union soldiers.

8 The Union suffered 12,600 killed or wounded.
Lincoln replaced Burnside with General Joseph Hooker

9 The Battle of Chancellorsville, Virginia (May, 1863)
With half as many men as Hooker, Lee still managed to cut the Union forces to pieces. As General “Stonewall” Jackson returned from a patrol on May 2, Confederate sentries thought he was a Union soldier and shot him in the arm. A surgeon amputated the arm, but Jackson caught pneumonia and died a week later.

10 Lee’s Second Invasion of the North
Lee hoped that a Confederate victory in Union territory would fuel Northern discontent with the war and bring calls for peace. He also hoped a Southern victory would lead European nations to give diplomatic recognition and aid to the Confederacy.

11 The Battle of Gettysburg (July 1-3)
Lee crossed into southern Pennsylvania. He entered Gettysburg looking for shoes for his men, but ran into Union troops. The fighting would rage for three days, with 90,000 Union troops commanded by General George Meade facing 75,000 Confederates led by Lee.


13 July 1 – Lee’s men entered Gettysburg, but were slowed by Union cavalry.
Throughout the day, Lee’s forces poured into Gettysburg, as did Union troops from the south. By day’s end, Lee’s troops held the town, while Union troops were driven back to positions south of Gettysburg on a piece of high ground called Cemetery Ridge. July 2 – Confederates attacked Union positions and tried to flank them at Little Round Top. Heroic efforts by Union soldiers from Maine kept Lee’s men from gaining the advantage on Meade’s position along Cemetery Ridge.

14 July 3 – Pickett’s Charge
Lee ordered General George Pickett to mount a direct attack on the middle of the Union line. 13,000 rebel troops charged up the ridge into heavy Union fire. Pickett’s men were torn to pieces, as Union soldiers chanted, “Fredericksburg, Fredericksburg !” The Confederates retreated, but once again, the Union general failed to finish off Lee’s army.

15 What was the Battle of Gettysburg?
The Battle of Gettysburg was an 1863 battle in which the Union defeated the Confederacy, ending hopes for a Confederate victory in the North.

16 What was Pickett’s Charge?
Pickett’s Charge was General George Pickett’s doomed attack on the middle of the Union line at Gettysburg; Pickett’s men were torn to pieces by Union troops.

17 The Union Victory at Gettysburg
Lee’s hopes for a Confederate victory in the North were crushed. The North had lost 23,000 men, but over one-third of Lee’s army, 28,000 men, lay dead or wounded. Lee led his army back to Virginia and never again invaded the North. Britain gave up all thought of supporting the South.

18 Why was the Battle of Gettysburg important?
The Battle of Gettysburg was important because it ended Lee’s hopes for a Confederate victory in the North.

19 Why was Gettysburg considered a turning point of the war?
Gettysburg was considered a turning point of the war because more than ,000 Confederate soldiers were killed or wounded, ending Lee’s hopes for a Confederate victory in the North.

20 The Fall of Vicksburg (July 4, 1863)
The day after Pickett’s Charge, the Union received news that General Ulysses S. Grant had defeated Confederate troops at the Siege of Vicksburg. Vicksburg was the last major Confederate stronghold on the Mississippi River. After Grant’s direct attacks failed, his troops surrounded the city. After nearly a month and a half, the city surrendered.

21 The Importance of Vicksburg
Since the North had taken New Orleans the previous spring, with complete control over the Mississippi River, the South was split in two. The Anaconda Plan was now almost complete. The tide of war turned in favor of the North. In Grant, Lincoln found a man who was willing to fight Lee.

22 What was the Siege of Vicksburg?
The Siege of Vicksburg was an 1863 Union victory in the Civil War that enabled the Union to control the entire Mississippi River.

23 How did the victory at Vicksburg help to fulfill the Anaconda Plan?
The victory at Vicksburg helped to fulfill the Anaconda Plan by giving the Union complete control of the Mississippi River, splitting the Confederacy in two.

24 Grant as Union Commander
March 1864 – Lincoln names General Grant commander of all the Union armies Grant’s plan to defeat the Confederacy – His men would pursue Lee’s army in Virginia, while Union forces under General William Tecumseh Sherman pushed through the Deep South to the Atlantic coast.

25 Why was Northern success in the Siege of Vicksburg important?
Northern success in the Siege of Vicksburg split the South in two. It also helped propel Grant to the leadership of the Union’s armies.

26 Sherman’s Total War September 1864 – Sherman took Atlanta, then set out on a march to the sea, cutting a path of destruction up to 60 miles wide and 300 miles long through Georgia. Total war: not only against enemy troops, but against everything that supports the enemy

27 Sherman’s Total War His troops tore up rail lines, destroyed crops, and burned and looted towns. Sherman’s triumph in Atlanta was important for Lincoln.

28 Who was William Tecumseh Sherman?
William Tecumseh Sherman was a Union general whose troops pushed through the Deep South to Atlanta and the Atlantic Coast, destroying everything that supported the enemy. 60 miles wide, and 300 miles in length.

29 Lincoln’s Re-election
In 1864, the president was running for reelection, but many Northerners were tired of war.

30 Lincoln’s Re-election
Democrats nominated George McClellan, who ran on an antiwar platform.

31 Lincoln’s Re-election
After Sherman’s success in the South, Northerners could sense a Union victory. Lincoln won with 55 percent of the popular vote.

32 Why were Sherman’s victories important for Lincoln?
Sherman’s victories were important because Lincoln was involved in a tough reelection campaign and many Northerners were tired of the war. Sherman’s successes gave Northerners hope for victory, and this optimism helped Lincoln to win reelection.

33 Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address
Lincoln hoped for a speedy end to the war and tried to make it easier for the South to surrender. “With malice towards none; with charity for all; let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation’s wounds; to do all which may achieve and cherish a just, and a lasting peace.”

34 Grant’s Virginia Campaign
Since May 1864, Grant and his generals had been fighting battle after battle, all the while moving south toward Richmond. Battle of the Wilderness (May, 1864) – Union and Confederate forces fought in a tangle of trees and brush so thick that they could barely see each other. Grant lost over 17,000 men, but pushed on. Battle of Cold Harbor (June, 1864) – 7,000 Union casualties, most in the first few minutes of battle.

35 Petersburg (June, 1864) Unable to break through the rebel defenses, the Union forces dug trenches and settled in for a ten-month siege. With Grant tightening his noose around Richmond, Lee pulled out, and Richmond fell on April 3.

36 Who was Ulysses S. Grant? Ulysses S. Grant was a Union general who defeated rebel troops at the Siege of Vicksburg and crushed Lee’s Army or Northern Virginia outside Richmond.

37 Surrender at Appomattox
Lee wanted to keep fighting, but he knew that his situation was hopeless. He sent a message to General Grant that he was ready to surrender. On April 9, 1865, Lee and Grant met in the small Virginia town of Appomattox Court House to arrange the surrender.

38 Surrender at Appomattox
Grant offered generous terms of surrender. After giving up their arms, Lee’s men could return home with their private possessions and horses.

39 Why were Grant’s terms of surrender considered generous?
Grant’s terms of surrender were considered generous because he allowed the Confederates to return home after handing over their weapons.

40 Surrender at Appomattox
Grant gave food to the Confederate soldiers. After four long years, the Civil War was coming to a close.

41 Why is Appomattox Courthouse important?
Appomattox Court House was the Virginia town where Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant in 1865, ending the Civil War.

42 How did Grant treat Confederate soldiers after the surrender at Appomattox Court House?
After the surrender at Appomattox Court House, Grant treated Confederate soldiers respectfully, gave them food, allowed them to take their personal possessions home with them.

43 Who was Robert E. Lee? Robert E. Lee was a Confederate general who was defeated at Gettysburg and later surrendered to Grant at Appomattox.

44 Re-teaching 17.3 For each of the following events, describe one or more of the immediate outcomes described in the section. 1. The Confederate Army under General Robert E. Lee battled Union troops under General Joseph Hooker at Chancellorsville, Virginia. 2. Lee's army crossed into Pennsylvania and encountered Union troops at Gettysburg. 3. Confederates decided to attack the Union Army head-on in what became known as Pickett's Charge. 4. Union troops under General Ulysses S. Grant defeated Confederate troops in the Siege of Vicksburg. 5. General William T. Sherman’s troops pushed through the Deep South to Atlanta and the Atlantic Coast. 6. Generals Grant and Lee faced off for ten months in Petersburg. 7. General Lee sent a message to General Grant that he was ready to surrender.

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