Presentation on theme: "STANDARD(S): 11.1 Students analyze the significant events in the founding of the nation. LESSON OBJECTIVES/ GOALS/ SWBAT 1.Contrast American opinions regarding."— Presentation transcript:
STANDARD(S): 11.1 Students analyze the significant events in the founding of the nation. LESSON OBJECTIVES/ GOALS/ SWBAT 1.Contrast American opinions regarding the Cuban revolt against Spain. 2.Identify events that escalated the conflict between the United States and Spain. 3.Trace the course of the Spanish-American War and its results.
Section 2 The Spanish-American War In 1898, the United States goes to war to help Cuba win its independence from Spain. NEXT
Cubans Rebel Against Spain American Interest in Cuba U.S. long interested in Cuba; wants to buy Cuba from Spain During 1868–1878 war for independence, American sympathies with Cuba 1886 abolition of slavery leads to U.S. investment in sugar cane The Spanish-American War 2 SECTION NEXT
SECTION 2: THE SPANISH AMERICAN WAR America had long held an interest in Cuba When Cubans unsuccessfully rebelled against Spanish rule in the late 19 th century, American sympathy went out to the Cuban people After Spain abolished slavery in Cuba in 1886, Americans invested millions in Cuban sugar Cuba is just 90 miles south of Florida
Chapter 10 Section 2 Guided Reading: Causes American business owners –Urged US intervention to protect American Business interest in Cuba.
Cubans Rebel Against Spain The Spanish-American War 2 SECTION NEXT The Second War for Independence José Martí—poet, journalist—launches second revolution in 1895 Guerrilla campaign destroys American-owned sugar mills, plantations U.S. public opinion split: - business wants to support Spain - others favor Cuban cause
CUBA’S SECOND WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE Anti-Spain sentiment in Cuba soon erupted into a second war for independence Led by poet Jose Marti, Cuba attempted a revolution in 1895 Marti deliberately destroyed property, including American sugar plants, hoping to provoke American intervention Marti
Chapter 10 Section 2 A – Why did José Martí encourage Cuban rebels to destroy sugar mills and plantations? –Marti hoped to provoke the United States into helping Cuba win independence from Spain.
Chapter 10 Section 2 Guided Reading: Causes Jose Marti –Provoked US intervention by deliberately destroying American-owned sugar mills and plantations.
War Fever Escalates Spain Takes Action 1896, General Valeriano Weyler sent to Cuba to restore order Puts about 300,000 Cubans in concentration camps 2 SECTION NEXT Continued...
War Fever Escalates 2 SECTION NEXT Headline Wars Newspapers exploit Weyler’s actions in circulation war Yellow journalism—sensational writing used to lure, enrage readers Continued...
WAR FEVER ESCALATES Newspaper publishers William Randolph Hearst (New York Journal) and Joseph Pulitzer (New York World) exaggerated Spanish atrocities and brutality in “Headline Wars” Political cartoon: Pulitzer (left) and Hearst escalating and instigating war between the U.S. and Spain
Chapter 10 Section 2 Guided Reading: Causes Yellow Journalism –Encouraged the American public to sympathize with Cuban rebels and the war.
continued War Fever Escalates The de Lôme Letter Headlines increase American sympathy for independent Cuba McKinley wants to avoid war, tries diplomacy to resolve crisis Private letter by Spanish minister Enrique Dupuy de Lôme published - calls McKinley weak, swayed by public Spain apologizes, de Lôme resigns; American public angry 2 SECTION NEXT
Chapter 10 Section 2 B – What events increased the tension between the United States and Spain? –Publication of the de Lome letter, which criticized President McKinley, –and the exploitation of the USS Maine, which many Americans blamed on Spain.
Chapter 10 Section 2 Guided Reading: Causes De Lome Letter –angered the American public because of its critcism of President McKinley
continued War Fever Escalates 2 SECTION NEXT The U.S.S. Maine Explodes U.S.S. Maine sent to pick up U.S. citizens, protect U.S. property Ship blows up in Havana harbor; newspapers blame Spain
U.S.S MAINE EXPLODES Early in 1888, President McKinley ordered the U.S.S. Maine to Cuba in order to bring home American citizens in danger On February 15, 1898 the ship blew up in the harbor of Havana More than 260 men were killed Before After
The Maine Explodes Unknown artist, 1898 Notice the men flying dramatically through the air
Chapter 10 Section 2 Guided Reading: Causes USS Maine –Led to the widespread support for war; –Led McKinley to ask Congress for a declaration of war
WAR ERUPTS WITH SPAIN There was no holding back those that wanted war with Spain Newspapers blamed the Spanish for bombing the U.S.S. Maine (recent investigations have shown it was a fire inside the Maine) “Remember the Maine!” became a rallying cry for U.S. intervention in Cuba
Chapter 10 Section 2 C – How did the Spanish try to avoid war with the United States? –The Spanish agreed to all of the demands of the United States, including a six month cease fire.
War with Spain Erupts The U.S. Declares War Spain agrees to most U.S. demands, public opinion still favors war U.S. declares war April 1898 2 SECTION NEXT Continued...
War with Spain Erupts 2 SECTION NEXT Continued... The War in the Philippines First battle with Spain occurs in Spanish colony of the Philippines Commodore George Dewey destroys Spanish fleet in Manila harbor Filipinos, led by Emilio Aguinaldo, support Dewey August 1898, Spanish troops in Manila surrender to U.S.
Chapter 10 Section 2 Why was American opinion about Cuban independence divided? –Many business people wanted the govt to support Spain in order to protect their investments. –Others were enthusiastic about the rebel cause.
The War in the Caribbean U.S. blockades Cuba; Spanish fleet in Santiago de Cuba harbor Unlike navy, U.S. army has small professional force, many volunteers - volunteers ill-prepared, ill-supplied continued War with Spain Erupts 2 SECTION NEXT Continued...
THE WAR IN THE CARIBBEAN Next, the American Navy destroyed the Spanish fleet and paved the way for an invasion of Puerto Rico (Spanish colony)
continued War with Spain Erupts 2 SECTION NEXT Rough Riders Rough Riders—Leonard Wood, Theodore Roosevelt lead volunteer cavalry Roosevelt declared hero of attack on strategic San Juan Hill Spanish fleet tries to escape blockade, is destroyed in naval battle U.S. troops invade Puerto Rico soon after Continued...
THE WAR IN THE CARIBBEAN A naval blockade of Cuba was followed by a land invasion highlighted by Roosevelt’s Rough Rider victory at San Juan Hill
Treaty of Paris Spain, U.S. sign armistice August 1898; meet in Paris to make treaty Spain frees Cuba; hands Guam, Puerto Rico to U.S.; sells Philippines continued War with Spain Erupts 2 SECTION NEXT
U.S. WINS; SIGNS TREATY OF PARIS The U.S. and Spain signed an armistice on August 12, 1898, ending what Secretary of State John Hay called “a splendid little war” The war lasted only 16 weeks Cuba was now independent U.S. receives Guam, Puerto Rico, and “bought” the Philippines for $20 million Treaty of Paris, 1898
continued War with Spain Erupts 2 SECTION NEXT Debate over the Treaty Treaty of Paris touches off great debate over imperialism McKinley tries to justify annexation of Philippines on moral grounds Opponents give political, moral, economic arguments against
Chapter 10 Section 2 Guided Reading: Causes Cuba –Achieved independence from Spain Puerto Rico –Went from Spanish rule to American rule Guam –Went from Spanish rule to American rule Philippine Islands –Sold by Spain to the United States; Annexed by the US
Chapter 10 Section 2 D – What were the terms of the Treaty of Paris? –Spain freed Cuba and turned over the islands of Guam and Puerto Rico to the US. –Spain also sold the Philippines to the US for $20 million
Chapter 10 Section 2 Briefly describe the terms of the Treaty of Paris of 1898. –Cuba – becomes independent –Puerto Rico - became a US TERRITORY –Guam - became a US TERRITORY –Philippine Islands – became a US TERRITORY