Presentation on theme: "ANIMAL BEHAVIOR Ch. 33. Ethology The study of animal behavior."— Presentation transcript:
ANIMAL BEHAVIOR Ch. 33
Ethology The study of animal behavior.
Behavior An action or series of actions performed in response to a stimulus.
Stimulus Something in the environment that causes an organism to respond. Ex: sound, smell, color, another animal, prey, predator, mate Rattlesnake-Crotalus-Viriduis-Posters.jpg
Response An organism’s reaction to a stimulus yCkiXCHrlE/s320/fear.jpg 600x400.jpg
Innate Behavior Natural responses to stimuli that do not depend on learning
Fixed Action Pattern Baby cuckoo pushes competing egg out of host parents nest. (Brood parasitism) Common Cuckoo being raised by Reed Warbler
Learned Behavior The development of behaviors through experience. Chimpanzees learn to use a stick to get termites out of a mound. _chimp7_small.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.honoluluzoo.org/enrichment_chimps_forage.htm& usg=__woo5vYFOeRCuUml_R- rle0bWnag=&h=224&w=300&sz=14&hl=en&start=39&um=1&tbnid=oS6_uaJssbkMQM:&tbn h=87&tbnw=116&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dchimps%2Busing%2Btools%26ndsp%3D20%26h l%3Den%26safe%3Dactive%26rls%3Dcom.microsoft:en- us%26sa%3DN%26start%3D20%26um%3D1
Imprinting Imprinting An animal develops a particular response to an object or organism only during a brief period early in life. mprinting&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dlorenz%2Bimprinting%26ndsp%3D20%26hl %3Den%26safe%3Dactive%26rls%3Dcom.microsoft:en- us%26sa%3DN%26um%3D1&safe=active
Natural Selection Behaviors that increase an individual’s reproductive success are favored by natural selection. Male lions kill or chase off the cubs of a previous male. 5/lion/image/Small/lion-pride.jpg
Foraging Behavior Food gathering behavior. Specialists eat only one or a few things. Generalists eat many kinds of food.
Antipredator Behavior Spines Chemical defense Play dead Running fast Form groups Camouflage Where's the Octopus? Aug.5, 2011
Migration Seasonal movement between distant places. To find better climate, food, mates, place to raise young.
Humpback whales migrate 5,100 miles between their feeding ground in Antarctica to their mating zones off Costa Rica. Why?
Hibernation Animal’s metabolic rate and body temperature drop. Animal becomes inactive for varying amounts of time. Ex: bats, groundhogs, prairie dogs, ladybugs, box turtles, squirrels, bears
Circadian Rhythms A cycle that occurs on a daily basis Internal cycle occurs in almost every animal Body temperature, sleep patterns, activity level Nocturnal - active at night Diurnal - active in daytime
Communication: any behavior that contains information and involves a sender and receiver. Animals use signals to influence the behavior of other animals.
Types of Communication Sight Chemicals Touch Sound Language
Sight Visual signals are fast and easy to produce. Bright colors may scare off a competitor or predator.
Chemical Termites mark their trail with chemicals called pheromones.
Sound Best over large distances. May signal food or predators or to attract mates.
Reproductive Strategies Animals have mating and parenting behaviors to maximize reproductive success. 1. Find and choose mate. 2. May use complex courting behavior or intense competition 3. Either abandon young or provide care.
Territorial Behavior Defending a portion of habitat against others of the same species. Competition for food or mates. Marking territory with scent, sound. Aggressive displays or fights. 7F5A-4D6E-B041-3DF13C91FCF7%7D
Courtship Behavior Behavior ritual that precedes and leads to mating.
Sexual Selection Females prefer a particular trait in males. That trait may affect the survival of the male. Female chooses mate!
Parental Behavior Protecting young and providing food Mammals nurse young. 90% of birds give care. Very few amphibians, reptiles, arachnids, insects