Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Introduction to Postwar Taiwan Fiction Unit 10: Nativist-realist Stories of Fate: The Cases of Huang Chun-ming and Wang Chen-ho. Lecturer: Richard Rong-bin.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Postwar Taiwan Fiction Unit 10: Nativist-realist Stories of Fate: The Cases of Huang Chun-ming and Wang Chen-ho. Lecturer: Richard Rong-bin."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Postwar Taiwan Fiction Unit 10: Nativist-realist Stories of Fate: The Cases of Huang Chun-ming and Wang Chen-ho. Lecturer: Richard Rong-bin Chen, PhD of Comparative Literature. Unless noted, the course materials are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 TaiwanAttribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Taiwan (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0) Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Taiwan 1

2 The Problem of Fate Definition Fate in fiction “1,230 Spots” “Gold Carp’s Pleated Skirt” “Death in a Cornfield” “State Funeral” Fate and Characters Fate and Plot: a problem-solving approach 2

3 Naturalism and “Fate” 3 A late 19 th -century and early 20 th century international literary movement originated in France, and became popular in Britain and the States. Representative Figures France: Gustave Flaubert and Emile Zola “Le roman expérimental” (1880) Britain: George Moore and Thomas Hardy America: Henry James, Theodore Dreiser, and Stephen Crane

4 The Fate of Women in Fiction Madame Bovary Nana Esther Waters and Tess of the d’Urbervilles Daisy Miller Nana Maggie 4

5 The Harper Handbook to Literature (by Northrop Frye et al., 1985) “Naturalism came largely from scientific determinism. Darwinism was especially important, as the naturalists perceived a person’s fate as the product of blind external or biological forces, chiefly heredity and environment, but in the typical naturalistic novel chance played a large part as well, suggesting a formula something like H + E + C = F... ” (p. 307) 5 Source: Northrop Frye, Sheridan Baker, George Perkins. (1985). The Harper handbook to literature. New York : Harper & Row

6 For example: Pai-mai’s original family accounts for her heredity, the foster family for her environment, and her encounter with Ying-ying on the train for chance. We can also see Wan-fa as an individual trapped in various adversities induced by his environment and chance. 6

7 The lives of ill-fated ordinary people Nativism (vs. Modernism) Realism (not just details) social and political criticism 7 Nativist-realism

8 Set in Keelung. Two boats disappeared during a typhoon, and the boat company did not send rescue teams, trying to use some death pension to comfort the families. Led by a employee of the Fishermen’s Association, the fishermen’s families tried to fight for their own rights. 8 “Awaiting Your Return” (1977, by Wang Tuo)

9 Set in the 1970s when Taiwan’s exportation economy prospered. Mrs. Liao was almost killed in a factory accident of explosion. She was fired by the manager of Wilson Electronics Corporation. Compensation was finally paid to Mrs. Liao after the political involvement of a provincial assemblyman. 9 “Our Chinese Manager” (1978, by Yang Ch’ing-ch’u)

10 Set in Hua-lien, two parents with four children. Sulan’s insanity. In only three years, in order to bring her back to health, the family spent all their savings. ”The British Social Welfare System.” 10 “Sulan’s Getting Married” (1980, by Wang Zhenhe)

11 Originally published in Literary Quarterly [ 文學季刊 ] The original Chinese title is “Days for Watching the Sea” [ 看海的日子 ] The film adaptation was made in 1983 with a screenplay written by the author himself Social Criticisms 11 “A Flower in the Rainy Night” (1967)

12 The population of the village, normally only four or five thousand, swells to over twenty thousand. Most of the increase is seamen--those who wear billed hats and speak in loud voices, those are all seamen. Venders of all sorts come to the harbor also at this time, and there are prostitutes, and red-headed, golden flies-all come with the arrival of the fish. This is the busiest time of the year for the fishing village, a time of madness. (p.195) 12 The Setting: Nan-fang-ao Source: Huang Chun-ming. (1976). Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.). Chinese stories from Taiwan, New York : Columbia University Press

13 1 st Section: The Fish Are Schooling Realism: described by a native of I-lan. The fishermen and the poor village children. Ah-niang saw the boats entering the harbor with excitement. The title: “Look! The bonito are schooling!” “Ah-hsüeh, you’d better hurry up and eat; in a little while you won’t even have time to sit up!” 13

14 2 nd Section: A Flower in the Rainy Night Social oppressions Sold by the foster father, whose first anniversary of death was Pai-mai’s reason to leave the fishing village. Her ex-client on the train The Reunion: the function of this episode? 14

15 Pai-mai’s own perspective and the judgment made on her Even herself thought that she wasn’t entitled to slap the man abused her verbally just because she was not an “ordinary woman” Under those circumstances she did not mind such insinuation, no matter how undisguised, how abusive, how obscene they were. But why couldn’t these people treat her like anyone else when she was out-side? She looked at the fat, greasy face of the man sitting next to her and quickly turned away, paying him no further attention. (p.198) 15 Source: Huang Chun-ming. (1976). Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.). Chinese stories from Taiwan, New York : Columbia University Press

16 Ying-ying’s Marriage Major Lu “A big, kind-faced man in his fifties.” (p.199) His identity? Cf: Old Man Young and His Woman 16 Source: Huang Chun-ming. (1976). Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.). Chinese stories from Taiwan, , New York : Columbia University Press

17 Is it possible to change one’s fate? If possible, how? 17 A look of childlike radiance had appeared on Ying- ying’s face, but in a moment it had faded as she said sadly, “ I know, in eight more years I’ll be just the same as now. You’ve said that fate’s a tyrant, and it’s no use for woman like us to try to change it.” “No…” Pai-mei had not been able to find any words of consolation to say to Ying-ying, and as she was trying to think of a way to deny what she had said once, her thoughts had been interupted by the stern sound of the madam’s... (p.198) Source: Huang Chun-ming. (1976). Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.). Chinese stories from Taiwan, New York : Columbia University Press

18 5 th Section: Lu Yen The Decision But except for her foster mother there was not a single person in the whole Ch’en family that Pai-mei could forgive. Suddenly she was struck by the thought that she needed a child, a child like Lu Yen. Only a child of her own would give her something in this world to call hers. Only a child of her own would give her someone to pin her hopes on. (p.209) 18 Source: Huang Chun-ming. (1976). Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.). Chinese stories from Taiwan, New York : Columbia University Press

19 5 th Section: K’eng-ti Atmosphere of Warmth and Familiarity The little village hadn’t changed in more than twenty years The way Pai-mai was greeted by Uncle Lucky She could tell who the children’s parents were just by looking at their faces 19

20 Pai-mei’s Character as a Helper 20 Both an oppressed woman and a helper [Ying-ying, her foster family, and the original family.] The family’s situation – brother’s leg amputated The villagers’ situation – the forestry bureau land would be taken back by the government Cf: “An Oxcart for Dowry”

21 Pai-mei’s Suggestions 21 She helped her brother’s amputation. She encouraged her brother to use his hands to make a living She suggested the villagers how to raise the price of their sweet potatoes

22 Her Return to K’eng-ti Symbolizes a Return to the Society “Mei-tzu,” she said happily, ”you didn’t bring good luck only to our own family--you brought it to the whole village!” Her spirits brightened. Soon everybody in K’eng-ti considered Mei-tzu’s return a good omen, that the government’s giving the slopeland over to them was a result of the good luck which she brought. That, plus her devotion to her family and her warmth toward the other villagers, earned her much respect in K’eng-ti. (p.228) 22 Source: Huang Chun-ming. (1976). Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.). Chinese stories from Taiwan, New York : Columbia University Press

23 Unexpectedly, she found her suggestion accepted by the villagers. Her being pregnant without getting married was not despised, and they even carried the sedan chair to get her into the town. Many of the village houses were damaged, and they made mud bricks together. The scene brings a sense of community and a great contrast to the social hostility Pai-mei had encountered in the past. 23

24 The Villagers’ Reactions “Aunt Sung“ asked Uncle Woody, “Mei-tzu’s so big now, when will we get to drink some sesame oil wine? Others too voiced their enthusiastic oncern:”Yes! When?” “Pretty soon now.” Mei-tzu’s mother was overjoyed by this show of concern by the villagers, and the anxiety she had felt less the girl should suffer their ridicule vanished. (p.232) 24 Source: Huang Chun-ming. (1976). Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.). Chinese stories from Taiwan, New York : Columbia University Press

25 “It’ll be with us in January,” she said. “Oh? So soon!” “Such a good girl, she should be given a son,”said one of the older bystanders. “Yes, she’s the only good girl these eyes of mine have ever seen.”(p.232) 25 Source: Huang Chun-ming. (1976). Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.). Chinese stories from Taiwan, New York : Columbia University Press

26 The Train Scene in the 7 th Section, Days for Watching the Sea Pai-mei felt that she was able to be a part of the world again. 26 Taking her baby, she bought a ticket and squeezed on a train going toward the port. Not a single seat on the car was empty, but she didn’t mind; she was happy enough just to be on the train going in that direction. Before she could find a spot to stand comfortably, two men in front of her stood up at the same time and offered her their seats (p.240) Source: Huang Chun-ming. (1976). Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.). Chinese stories from Taiwan, New York : Columbia University Press

27 27 she was so surprised and moved by this ordinary event that she stood dumbfounded until a woman came over and led her to her own empty seat. She looked into the woman’s face and was met by a warm and friendly smile. She looked at the people beside her and then searched the eyes of everybody she could see; in them she found without exception a warmth that she had never experienced before. Her eyes blurred. The barrier that had always constrained her and kept her separated from the crowd no longer existed, and the world that she saw now was obscured no longer by the suffocating bars of her prison. She had become a part of that world. (p.240) Source: Huang Chun-ming. (1976). Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.). Chinese stories from Taiwan, New York : Columbia University Press

28 What’s in the title? ”An Oxcart for Dowry” (1967) Like “A Flower in the Rainy Night,” it was first published in Literary Quarterly. ”Oxcart” ”Dowry” 28

29 It is all for the oxcart’s sake. Each time Wan-fa got angry and rushed out of the house, he would generally go to the cemetery and unfasten from his belt a long purse from which he would take all the coins and bills to count. He counted them forwards and backwards. Ah! Still not enough to buy an oxcart. Still a long way to go. Then he would say to himself: It’s not right to be so hard on Chien. After all, he is my god of wealth and it would be stupid to send this god away.(p.95) 29 Source: Wang Zhenhe. (1976). Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.). Chinese stories from Taiwan, New York : Columbia University Press

30 What’s in the quotation? “There are moments in our life when even Schubert has nothing to say to us…” (p.75) Quotation from The Portrait of a Lady by Henry James 30 Source: Wang Zhenhe. (1976). Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.). Chinese stories from Taiwan, New York : Columbia University Press

31 Published in Mainly about Isabel Archer, her manipulative husband Gilbert Osmond and his adulterous relationship with Madame Merle. 31

32 Isabel heard the piece of Schubert’s piano composition played by Merle, and said that the music could comfort her seriously ailing uncle. Merle retorted Isabel with the quoted words, showing she herself understood life better. Ironically, toward the end of the novel, we were informed that it was actually Merle who gave Isabel some “speechless moments.” 32

33 About Wang Chen-ho A native of Hua-lien, he was born in He entered the Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures, NTU in 1959; after graduated from NTU in 1963 and served two years in the military, he went back to Hua-lien to work as a high school English teacher. Later on, he also worked for an airline company and a TV station. In 1961, he published his first short story, “Ghost, Northwind, Man,” in Modern Literature (Hsien-tai wen-hsueh). 33

34 About Wang Chen-ho In 1972, he was invited to join the International Writing Program in Iowa University. In 1980, he was diagnosed with cancer, which never made him stop writing, and, like Huang Chun-ming, many of his works have been made into movies, including his most famous book-length novel, Rose, Rose, I Love You [ 《玫瑰玫瑰我愛你》 ] (1984), and “An Oxcart for Dowry” [ 〈嫁妝一牛車〉 ] (1969). He passed away in September,

35 Wang’s writing is a combination of Modernism and Nativist-realism. He was an enthusiastic practitioner of the Modernist experiments in language innovation through his deliberate mixture of Mandarin, English, Taiwanese dialect, and even Japanese in his writing with the effects of vernacular expression and sarcasm. 35

36 Examples of language innovation: what’s in their names? Wan-fa [ 萬發 ] Ten thousand times prosperous or lucky. Extremely unlucky, so his name becomes sarcastic. Pronounced like “turtle” [ 王八 ], another name for cuckold in Chinese. 36

37 Ah-hao [ 阿好 ]: hao literally means “good.” Is she a good woman? Chien [ 簡 ] In Taiwanese dialect, it is pronounced like kan, the same with a profanity in the dialect, which A-hao said all the time in the story. In Mandarin, the pronunciation is similar to “adultery” [ 姦 ]. 37

38 Another writer who always enjoyed playing with names is Charles Dickens. The fraud in David Copperfield: Mr. Murdstone. Merde in French. 38

39 From the themes, settings, and plots of his novels and stories, however, we also can see that his works show a great and sympathetic concern about those impoverished and miserable “nobodies” in the countryside. Of course, “An Oxcart for Dowry” is one of the most representative and sarcastic works in this type. 39

40 How poverty is described? 40 Wan-fa took his undershirt down from a bamboo pole and covered his bare chest with it. It was his only undershirt. At night he took it off for washing; by noon next day it was dry enough to wear outdoors. Once, he had owned another undershirt, for rotation. But his oldest son had “borrowed” it when he had gone to town to look for a job. “ To be hard up on the road is worse than hard up at home.” So Wan-fa, like any father, sacrificed something for his son’s sake.(p.78) Source: Wang Zhenhe. (1976). Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.). Chinese stories from Taiwan, New York : Columbia University Press

41 Almost all of his major works have been translated into English: 1961: “Ghost, Northwind, Man” (collected in Winter Plum). 1967: “Auntie Lai-chun’s Autumn Sorrows” (in Chinese PEN). 1969: “An Oxcart for Dowry” (collected in Chinese Stories from Taiwan: ). 1975: “The Story of Three Springs” (collected in Unbroken Chain). 41

42 1976: “Sulan’s Getting Married” (collected in Oxcart: Nativist Stories from Taiwan). 1979: “Shangri-la” (collected in Worlds of Modern Chinese Fiction). 1984: Rose, Rose, I Love You (published by Columbia University Press in 1998). 42

43 This story is about the everlasting conflict of “either honor or hunger,” a choice we are forced to make from time to time. If you want to keep your face, sometimes the “bread and butter” problem will hunt you down, and vice versa. In the story, we see the miserable life of Wan-fa, a man who had never been lucky until he got his “oxcart for dowry.” 43

44 He was eighty percent deaf due to a bombing during the war, and the plants on his land were washed away by a flood. Also, he could not afford a means to his family’s livelihood, so he was only a hired oxcart driver whose payment could hardly provide for his wife and youngest son. The reason why he finally did not have to worry about his family’s livelihood was that he gave up his dignity completely and allowed the adulterers to have their way. The character of Wan-fa epitomizes a great part of the rural life. 44

45 Also, after he threw Chien out of his house, he lost all his savings on Lao- wu’s illness, the mountain slope he used to plant sweet potatoes was gone, and, though he was able to go back to the trade of a oxcart driver, the ox went mad, struck down and killed a child, which made him end up in the prison. Seeing this story, one might ask: is it possible for men to resist their destinies? 45

46 Wan-fa, once thought “a poor man is not poor at all in self-respect” (92), went into the prison and could do nothing about the adultery between his wife and Chien. Then, one day in the prison, “for no reason at all, he suddenly regretted having driving Chien away” (97), so, after being released, he completely gave in to the manipulation of his destiny. He accepted pleasantly the oxcart Chien bought for him as a “dowry,” though he also felt disgusted with himself for being pleased (98). 46 Source: Wang Zhenhe. (1976). Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.). Chinese stories from Taiwan, New York : Columbia University Press

47 Wan-fa’s response to Chien’s return. No, Wan-fa warned himself, I must not let her know I am pleased to see Chien back. And I can’t let Chien feel he is doing us a favor, either. He was surprised to find himself so calculating all of a sudden. But, after all, he told himself, a poor man is not poor at all in self-respect.(p.92) 47 Source: Wang Zhenhe. (1976). Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.). Chinese stories from Taiwan, , New York : Columbia University Press

48 A statement in the beginning of the story. All the villagers laughed at him, and teased him unmercifully. And it was worse that his two nearly deaf ears were not quite able to ward off the villagers’ scorn completely. Had he been generous enough to let his ears fail completely, he might have felt less uneasy among the villagers. He might also feel much better now. (p.75) 48 Source: Wang Zhenhe. (1976). Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.). Chinese stories from Taiwan, , New York : Columbia University Press

49 Accepting the oxcart is the same with accepting his fate as being a cuckold. Ah-hao came in and joined them. “Mr. Chien has bought you an oxcart, from tomorrow on you can earn more with your own oxcart.” “He has bought me an oxcart?” Wan-fa was quite astonished. He had dreamed of owning an oxcart all his life, and now the dream had come true. For a moment he was pleased and delighted. Then he felt disgusted with himself. What a disgrace! I exchange my wife for an oxcart. What a disgrace! (p.98) 49 Source: Wang Zhenhe. (1976). Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.). Chinese stories from Taiwan, , New York : Columbia University Press

50 Copyright Declaration PageWork LicensingAuthor/Source 5 “Naturalism came largely …suggesting a formula something like H + E + C = F... ” Northrop Frye,Sheridan Baker, George Perkins. (1985). The Harper handbook to literature, (p.307) New York : Harper & Row. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 12 The population of the village, normally only four …fishing village, a time of madness. Huang Chun-ming. (1976). A Flower in the Rainy Night. Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.). Chinese stories from Taiwan, , (p.195) New York : Columbia University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 15 Under those circumstances she did not mind …no further attention. Huang Chun-ming. (1976). A Flower in the Rainy Night. Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.). Chinese stories from Taiwan, , (p.198) New York : Columbia University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 16 A big, kind-faced man in his fifties. Huang Chun-ming. (1976). A Flower in the Rainy Night. Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.). Chinese stories from Taiwan, , (p.199) New York : Columbia University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 17 A look of childlike radiance had appeared on …by the stern sound of the madam’s... Huang Chun-ming. (1976). A Flower in the Rainy Night. Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.). Chinese stories from Taiwan, , (p.198) New York : Columbia University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 18 But except for her foster mother… someone to pin her hopes on. Huang Chun-ming. (1976). A Flower in the Rainy Night. Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.). Chinese stories from Taiwan, , (p.209) New York : Columbia University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 50

51 PageWork LicensingAuthor/Source 22 “Mei-tzu,” she said …earned her much respect in K’eng-ti. Huang Chun-ming. (1976). A Flower in the Rainy Night. Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.). Chinese stories from Taiwan, , (p.228) New York : Columbia University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 24 “Aunt Sung“ asked Uncle Woody, “Mei- tzu’s …should suffer their ridicule vanished. Huang Chun-ming. (1976). A Flower in the Rainy Night. Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.). Chinese stories from Taiwan, , (p.232) New York : Columbia University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 25 “It’ll be with us in January,” …eyes of mine have ever seen.” Huang Chun-ming. (1976). A Flower in the Rainy Night. Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.). Chinese stories from Taiwan, , (p.232) New York : Columbia University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 26 Taking her baby, she bought a … same time and offered her their seats Huang Chun-ming. (1976). A Flower in the Rainy Night. Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.). Chinese stories from Taiwan, , (p.240) New York : Columbia University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 27 she was so surprised and moved by …prison. She had become a part of that world. Huang Chun-ming. (1976). A Flower in the Rainy Night. Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.). Chinese stories from Taiwan, , (p.240) New York : Columbia University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 29 Each time Wan-fa got angry and …of wealth and it would be stupid to send this god away. Wang Zhenhe. (1976). An Oxcart for Dowry. Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.). Chinese stories from Taiwan, , (p.95) New York : Columbia University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 51 Copyright Declaration

52 PageWork LicensingAuthor/Source 30 “There are moments in our life when even Schubert has nothing to say to us…” Wang Zhenhe. (1976). An Oxcart for Dowry. Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.). Chinese stories from Taiwan, , (p.75) New York : Columbia University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 40 Wan-fa took his undershirt …sacrificed something for his son’s sake. Wang Zhenhe. (1976). An Oxcart for Dowry. Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.). Chinese stories from Taiwan, , (p.78) New York : Columbia University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 46 a poor man is not poor at all in self-respect Wang Zhenhe. (1976). An Oxcart for Dowry. Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.). Chinese stories from Taiwan, , (p.92) New York : Columbia University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 46 for no reason at all, he suddenly regretted having driving Chien away Wang Zhenhe. (1976). An Oxcart for Dowry. Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.). Chinese stories from Taiwan, , (p.97) New York : Columbia University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 46 after being released, he completely …with himself for being pleased Wang Zhenhe. (1976). An Oxcart for Dowry. Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.). Chinese stories from Taiwan, , (p.98) New York : Columbia University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 47 No, Wan-fa warned himself, … himself, a poor man is not poor at all in self-respect. Wang Zhenhe. (1976). An Oxcart for Dowry. Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.). Chinese stories from Taiwan, , (p.92) New York : Columbia University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. Copyright Declaration 52

53 Copyright Declaration PageWork LicensingAuthor/Source 48 All the villagers laughed at him, and …villagers. He might also feel much better now. Wang Zhenhe. (1976). An Oxcart for Dowry Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.). Chinese stories from Taiwan, , (p.75) New York : Columbia University Press It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 49 Ah-hao came in and joined them. “Mr. Chien …my wife for an oxcart. What a disgrace! Wang Zhenhe. (1976). An Oxcart for Dowry Joseph S. M. Lau (Ed.). Chinese stories from Taiwan, , (p.98) New York : Columbia University Press It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 53


Download ppt "Introduction to Postwar Taiwan Fiction Unit 10: Nativist-realist Stories of Fate: The Cases of Huang Chun-ming and Wang Chen-ho. Lecturer: Richard Rong-bin."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google