3Training vs. Development Development tends to be a longer term shift in thinking and “being”.Development is broader in scope, focusing on individuals gaining new capabilities useful for both present and future jobs.Pen/Paper- reflect and then briefly describe in writing a “moment” that changed your life. Think about the most significant things that have happened to you, which one REALLY shaped who you are?
4Leaders are Readers Warren Bennis On Becoming a Leader (2003) “more leaders have been made by accident, circumstance, sheer grit, or will than have been made by all the leadership courses put together.”Development happens….we want to expedite it if we can.
5Nature of Training Training New Context of Training A process whereby people acquire capabilities to aid in the achievement of organizational goals.Includes both hard and soft skillsNew Context of TrainingOrganization Competitiveness and TrainingTraining makes organizations more competitiveTraining helps retain valuable employeesTraining is no longer the first casualty of a business downturn.Technology changes so fast training is not optionalGlobal environment requires cultural training for increased financial performance and decision makingNot everyone loves training
6Changes in the Nature of Training Training as a Revenue SourceMarketing training with or alongside products (e.g., I.T. products) can contribute significantly to a firm’s revenues.Integration of Performance and TrainingTraining is moving “closer to the job” to achieve “real time” learning- Training occurs closer to the job
7Strategic TrainingHR, Chief Learning Officer and Training ProfessionalsAre more likely to get involved with the business, partner with operating managers to help solve problems, and to make significant contributions to organizational results.Are less likely to chase fads or the hottest or latest type of training gimmick.Are less likely to think that training alone can solve most employee or organizational performance problems.
8Developing Strategic Training Plans A good training plan deals with the following questions:Is there really a need for the training?Who needs to be trained? (e.g., job and legal/discrimination needs)Who will do the training?What form will the training take?How will knowledge be transferred to the job?How will the training be evaluated?
10Sources of the Information Used in Training Needs Assessment Organizational AnalysesJob/Task AnalysesIndividual Analyses
11Establishing Training Objectives and Priorities Gap AnalysisThe distance between where an organization is with its employee capabilities and where it needs to be.Types of Training ObjectivesKnowledge: Impart cognitive information and details to trainees.Skill: Develop behavior changes in how job and tasks are performed.Attitude: Create interest and awareness of the training importance.
12Learning Styles Adult Learning Principles Have need to know why they are learning something.Have need to be self-directed.Bring more work-related experiences into the process.Employ a problem-solving approach in the experience.Are motivated by both extrinsic and intrinsic factors.
14Training Design (cont’d) Learner ReadinessSelf-EfficacyAbility to LearnMotivation to LearnPerceived Utility/Value
15Learning Styles (cont’d) Behavior ModelingCopying someone else’s behavior by observing how another person deals with a problem.ReinforcementLaw of effect states that people tend to repeat behaviors that are rewarded and avoid behaviors that are punished.Immediate ConfirmationReinforcement and feedback are most effective when given as soon as possible after training.
16Learning: Types of Training Required and Regular Training(e.g., hazardous chemicalsJob/Technical Training(e.g., new machines)Types of TrainingDevelopmental and Innovative TrainingInterpersonal and Problem-Solving Training
17Outsourcing Training: Sources of External Training Vendor Training and CertificationGovernment-Supported Job TrainingEducational Assistance Programs (includes contract to stay. Buyouts?)External Training
18Advantages and Disadvantages of E-learning Source: Developed by Lisa A. Burke and Robert L. Mathis.
19Training Approaches (generational and culture issues) Distance Training/LearningCooperative/OJT TrainingInstructor-Led Classroom and Conference TrainingSimulations and TrainingTraining Methods
22Training Evaluation (cont’d) Cost-Benefit AnalysesA comparison of costs and benefits associated with organizational training effortsMeasurement of both the costs and the benefits may be difficult.Return on Investment (ROI) AnalysisCRITICAL to maintaining training efforts and establishing credibility with organizationPinpointing whether it actually was training that caused the changes.
24Pre-/Post-Measure with a Control Group Evaluation DesignsPost-MeasurePre-/Post-MeasurePre-/Post-Measure with a Control GroupEvaluation DesignThe issue and value of random assignment.Addresses the “prove it” issue.
25Reading CalloutsWhat has happened to training costs in the last decade?5 steps to analyzing a training needWhen developing assessment tools what are the training guidelines?What should training designers leverage?What are three activities when developing training content?What is the first step when implementing training isWhat is the final phase when designing a systematic training systemWhat is a successful case example of a systematic training system?During what time was training literature voluminous?